Turn-taking in Brazilian Sign Language: Evidence from overlap
Subject Areas: Linguistics
This study investigates the interactional skills of fluent sign language users, with special attention to contexts of overlapping talk. Data from semi-spontaneous conversations were analyzed from the video record, transcribed in ELAN, with tiers for non-manual signals and with a ‘gesture phase’ analysis of manual signs. Results show that signers closely coordinate their contributions in accordance with the sequential implicativeness of gesture phases. They deploy conventional resources similar to those described for spoken languages to resolve overlap quickly and efficiently. We show that signers, like speakers of oral languages, orient to ‘one party talks at a time’, and that the management of talk-in-interaction is achieved within a tightly organized system which includes resources traditionally associated with the ‘linguistic’, ‘paralinguistic/prosodic’, and ‘kinetic/gestural’ domains, thus possibly contributing to investigations of explicitly ad hoc and multimodal forms of communication and eventually to a reevaluation of what might legitimately be termed ‘talk’.
Author: Leland Emerson McCleary, Tarcísio de Arantes Leite
Baker, C. (1977). Regulators and turn-taking in American Sign Language discourse. In L. A. Friedman (ed.), On the Other Hand: New Perspectives on American Sign Language, 215–236. New York: Academic Press.
Baker, C. and Padden, C. A. (1978). Focusing on the nonmanual component of American Sign Language. In P. Siple (ed.), Understanding Language through Sign Language Research, 27–57. New York: Academic Press.
Capovilla, F. C. and Raphael, W. D. (2001). Dicionário Enciclopédico Ilustrado Trilíngue da Língua de Sinais Brasileira (Libras). São Paulo, SP: Edusp and Imprensa Oficial do Estado.
Coates, J. and Sutton-Spence, R. (2001). Turn-taking patterns in deaf conversation. Journal of Sociolinguistics 5 (4): 507–529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00162
Duncan, S. (1972). Some signals and rules for taking speaking turns in conversations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 23 (2): 283–292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0033031
Duncan, S. (1973). Toward a grammar for dyadic conversation. Semiotica 9 (1): 29–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/semi.19184.108.40.206
Edelsky, C. (1981). Who’s got the floor? Language in Society 10 (3): 383–421. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S004740450000885X
Emery, N. J. (2000). The eyes have it: The neuroethology, function and evolution of social gaze. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24: 581–604. Retrieved from http://www.ece.uvic.ca/~btill/papers/facerec/Emery2000.pdf http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0149-7634(00)00025-7
Goffman, E. (1964). The neglected situation. The Ethnography of Communication. American Antropologist 66 (6): 133–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1964.66.suppl_3.02a00090
Goffman, E. (1974). The frame analysis of talk. Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience, 496–559. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.
Goodwin, C. (1979). The interactive construction of a sentence in natural conversation. In G. Psathas (ed.), Everyday Language: Studies in Ethnomethodology, 97–121. New York, NY: Irvington Publishers.
Goodwin, C. (1980). Restarts, pauses, and the achievement of a state of mutual gaze at turn-beginning. Sociological Inquiry 50 (3-4): 272–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1980.tb00023.x
Goodwin, C. (2000). Action and embodiment within situated human interaction. Journal of Pragmatics 32: 1489–1522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-2166(99)00096-X
Goodwin, C. (2003). Pointing as situated practice. In S. Kita (ed.), Pointing: Where Language, Culture and Cognition Meet, 217–241. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Hanke, T. (ed.). (2002). ViSiCAST Deliverable D5-1 : Interface Definitions, 1–74. University of East Anglia. Retrieved from http://www.visicast.cmp.uea.ac.uk/Papers/ViSiCAST_D5-1v017rev2.pdf
Jefferson, G. (1972). Side sequences. In D. N. Sudnow (ed.), Studies in Social Interaction, 294–338. New York: The Free Press.
Johnson, R. E. and Liddell, S. K. (2011). A segmental framework for representing signs phonetically. Sign Language Studies 11 (3): 408–463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/sls.2011.0002
Kendon, A. (1967). Some functions of gaze-direction in social interaction. Acta Psychologica 26: 22–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-6918(67)90005-4
Kendon, A. (1972). Some relationships between body motion and speech: An analysis of an example. In A. W. Siegman and B. Pope (eds), Studies in Dyadic Communication, 177–210. New York: Pergamon Press.
Kendon, A. (1980). Gesticulation and speech: Two aspects of the process of utterance. In M. R. Key (ed.), Nonverbal Communication and Language, 207–227. The Hague: Mouton de Gruyter.
Kendon, A. (2004). Gesture: Visible Action as Utterance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kita, S., Gijn, I. van and Hulst, H. van der (1998). Movement phases in signs and co-speech gestures, and their transcription by human coders. In I. Wachsmuth and M. Fröhlich (eds), Gesture and Sign Language in Human-Computer Interaction, 23–35. London: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BFb0052986
Langton, S. R. H., Watt, R. J. and Bruce, V. (2000). Do the eyes have it? Cues to the direction of social attention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (2): 50–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(99)01436-9
Leite, T. de A. (2008). A segmentação da língua de sinais brasileira (libras): Um estudo lingüístico descritivo a partir da conversação espontânea entre surdos. Doctoral dissertation. University of São Paulo. Retrieved from http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/8/8147/tde-25092008-160005/pt-br.php
Liddell, S. K. and Johnson, R. E. (1989). American Sign Language: The phonological base. Sign Language Studies 64 (Fall): 195–278.
Lindwall, O. and Ekström, A. (2012). Instruction-in-interaction: The teaching and learning of a manual skill. Human Studies 35 (1): 27–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10746-012-9213-5
McCleary, L. E. and Viotti, E. de C. (2007). Transcrição de dados de uma língua sinalizada: Um estudo piloto da transcrição de narrativas na língua de sinais brasileira (LSB). In H. M. M. Lima-Salles (ed.), Bilingüismo dos surdos: Questões lingüísticas e educacionais, 73–96. Goiania, GO: Cânone Editorial.
McCleary, L. E. and Viotti, E. de C. (2010). Sign-gesture symbiosis in Brazilian Sign Language narrative. In F. Parrill, V. Tobin, and M. Turner (eds), Meaning, Form, and Body, 181–201. Chicago, IL: CSLI Publications, University of Chicago Press. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1617208
McCleary, L. E., Viotti, E. de C. and Leite, T. de A. (2010). Descrição das línguas sinalizadas: A questão da transcrição dos dados. Alfa 54 (1): 265–289. Retrieved from http://seer.fclar.unesp.br/alfa/article/view/2880
McGurk, H. and MacDonald, J. (1976). Hearing lips and seeing voices. Nature 264: 746–748. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/264746a0
McIlvenny, P. (1991). Some thoughts on the study of sign language talk. In K. Sajauaara, D. Marsh, and T. Keto (eds), Communication and Discourse across Cultures and Languages, 187–201. Jyvaskyla, Finland: Publications de L’Association Finlandaise de Linguistique Appliquée (AFinLA). Retrieved from http://paul-server.hum.aau.dk/research/cv/pubs/sign-talk91.pdf
McIlvenny, P. (1995). Seeing conversations: Analyzing sign language talk. In P. ten Have and G. Psathas (eds), Situated Order: Studies in the Social Organization of Talk and Embodied Activities, 129–150. Washington, DC: University Press of America.
McNeill, D. (1992). Hand and Mind: What Gestures Reveal about Thought. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Mondada, L. (2006). Participants’ online analysis and multimodal practices: Projecting the end of the turn and the closing of the sequence. Discourse Studies 8 (1): 117–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461445606059561
Mondada, L. (2007). Multimodal resources for turn-taking: Pointing and the emergence of possible next speakers. Discourse Studies 9 (2): 194–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461445607075346
Poyatos, F. (1993). Paralanguage. Amsterdam/Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Sacks, H. (1972). An initial investigation of the usability of conversational data for doing sociology. In D. N. Sudnow (ed.), Studies in Social Interaction, 31–73. New York: Free Press.
Sacks, H. (1974). An analysis of the course of a joke’s telling in conversation. In R. Bauman and J. Sherzer (eds), Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking, 337–353. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sacks, H. (1992). Rules of conversational sequence. Lectures on Conversation, 1 (1): 3–11. Blackwell.
Sacks, H. and Schegloff, E. A. (2002). Home position. Gesture 2 (2): 133–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/gest.2.2.02sac
Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. A. and Jefferson, G. (1974). A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language 50 (4): 696–735. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412243
Schegloff, E. A. (1968). Sequencing in conversational openings. American Anthropologist 70 (6): 1075–1095. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1968.70.6.02a00030
Schegloff, E. A. (1982). Discourse as an interactional achievement: Some uses of ‘uh huh’ and other things that come between sentences. In D. Tannen (ed.), Analyzing Discourse: Text and Talk, 71–93. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Schegloff, E. A. (1984). On some gestures’ relation to talk. In J. M. Atkinson and J. Heritage (eds), Structures of Social Action: Studies in Conversation Analysis, 266–296. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schegloff, E. A. (1998). Body torque. Social Research 65 (3): 535–596.
Schegloff, E. A. (1999). Discourse, pragmatics, conversation, analysis. Discourse Studies 1 (4): 405–435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461445699001004002
Schegloff, E. A. (2000). Overlapping talk and the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language in Society 29 (1): 1–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0047404500001019
Streeck, J. (2009). Gesturecraft: The Manufacture of Meaning. Amsterdam/Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/gs.2
Streeck, J., Goodwin, C. and LeBaron, C. (eds). (2011). Embodied Interaction: Language and Body in the Material World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wilcox, S. (2004). Cognitive iconicity: Conceptual spaces, meaning, and gesture in signed languages. Cognitive Linguistics 15 (2): 119–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cogl.2004.005
Wilson, M. and Wilson, T. P. (2005). An oscillator model of the timing of turn-taking. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 12 (6): 957–68. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16615316 http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03206432