The Case for Chimpanzee Religion
Issue: Vol 8 No. 1 (2014)
Subject Areas: Religious Studies
Do chimpanzees engage in religious behaviors? To date this question remains unanswered. I use methods from religious studies and anthropology of religion that demonstrate an answer in the afﬁrmative. A comprehensive review of primatology reports reveals that chimpanzees do perform ritualized patterns of behavior in response to birth, death, consortship, and elemental natural phenomena. A structuralist analysis of these patterns shows that chimpanzees deploy similar formulaic action schemas involving recombination of syntagmatic and paradigmatic behaviors across all four of these life-situations. In the course of these performances, chimpanzees decontextualize and convert everyday communicative signals to express non-ordinary emotions of wonder and awe. The patterning of chimpanzee ritual behaviors evidences all the components of a prototypical trans-species deﬁnition of religion. These ﬁndings support hypotheses that propose religious behaviors for other species, including hominins prior to Homo sapiens sapiens.
Author: James B Harrod