Archaeology of the Anthropocene
Journal: Journal of Contemporary Archaeology
Subject Areas: Archaeology
What role will archaeology play in the Anthropocene – the proposed new geological epoch marked by human impact on Earth systems? That is the question discussed by thirteen archaeologists and other scholars from five continents in this thought-provoking forum. Their responses are diverse and wide-ranging. While Edward Harris looks to archaeological stratigraphy for a material paradigm of the Anthropocene, Alice Gorman explores the extent of human impact on orbital space and lunar surfaces – challenging the assumption that the Anthropocene is confined to Earth. Jeff Benjamin investigates the sounds of the Anthropocene. Paul Graves-Brown questions the idea that the epoch had its onset with the invention of the steam engine, while Mark Hudson uses Timothy Morton’s concept of hyperobjects to imagine the dark artefacts of the future. Victor Paz doubts the practical relevance of the concept to archaeological chronologies, and Bruce Clarke warns archaeologists to steer clear of the Anthropocene altogether, on the grounds of the overbearing hubris of the very idea of the Age of Humans. Others like Jason Kelly and Ewa Domanska regard the Anthropocene debate as an opportunity to reach new forms of understanding of Earth systems. André Zarankin and Melisa Salerno ground significant issues in the archaeology of Antarctica. And Zoe Crossland explores the vital links between the known past and the imagined future. As a discipline orientated to the future and contemporary world as well as the past, Chris Witmore concludes, archaeology in the Anthropocene will have more work than it can handle.
Author: Matt Edgeworth, Jeffrey Benjamin, Bruce Clarke, Zoe Crossland, Ewa Domanska, Alice Claire Gorman, Paul Graves-Brown, Edward Cecil Harris, Mark James Hudson, Jason M. Kelly, Victor Joaquin Paz, Melisa Anabella Salerno, Christopher Witmore, Andrés Zarankin
Ackoff, R. L. 1981. Creating the Corporate Future. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Adams, D. 2002 . The Ultimate Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. New York: Ballantine Books.
Aoyama, M. and M.J. Hudson. 2013. “Minamata as Negative Heritage: Implications for Fukushima.” Pacific Geographies 40: 23–28.
Asimov, I. 1986 . “The Last Question” in Robot Dreams, 234–246. New York: Berkley Publishing Group.
Attali, J. 1985. Noise: The Political Economy of Music. Translated by B. Massumi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Autin, W. J. and J. M. Holbrook. 2012. “Is the Anthropocene an Issue of Stratigraphy or Pop Culture?” GSA Today 22(7): 60–61.
Ayestaran, I. 2008. “The Second Copernican Revolution in the Anthropocene: An Overview.” Revista Internacional Sostenibilidad, Technologia y Humanismo 3: 146–157.
Balter, M. 2013. “Archaeologists Say the ‘Anthropocene’ is Here—but It Began Long Ago.” Science 340 (6130): 261–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.340.6130.261
Bayliss-Smith, T. 1985. “Pre-Ipomoean Agriculture in the New Guinea Highlands above 2000 Metres.” In Prehistoric Intensive Agriculture in the Tropics, vol. 1, edited by I. S. Farrington, 285–320. Oxford: BAR International Series 232.
Becker, P. 2010. “The Coming of a Neurocentric Age?” Medicina & Storia X: 101–128.
Bédard, D. G., A. Wade, D. Monin and R. Scott. 2010. “Spectrometric Characterization of Geostationary Satellites.” Paper presented to the AMOS (Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies) conference, Hawai’i. Available at www.amostech.com/TechnicalPapers/2012/POSTER/BEDARD.pdf
Benjamin, J. 2013. “Lessons from the Kinetic Past: Repetition and Trance in Industrial Social Formation. “Paper presented at The Cultural Memory of Sound and Space: The 17th Finnish Music Researchers’ Symposium. Turku, Finland, March 13–15, 2013.
Benjamin, J. 2013. Sound as Artifact. (Masters Thesis, Michigan Technological University, 2013).
Bernhard, T. 1992. Old Masters: A Comedy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226074344.001.0001
Bey, H. 1991. The Temporary Autonomous Zone, Ontological Anarchy, Poetic Terrorism. Brooklyn, New York: Autonomedia. Available online: http://hermetic.com/bey/taz_cont.html.
Bleed, P. 2006. “Living in the Human Niche.” Evolutionary Anthropology 15: 8–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/evan.20084
Bleed, P. and A. Matsui. 2010. “Why Didn’t Agriculture Develop in Japan? A Consideration of Jomon Ecological Style, Niche Construction, and the Origins of Domestication.” Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 17: 356–370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10816-010-9094-8
Bodner, C. C. 1986. On the Evolution of Agriculture In Central Bontoc. PhD Diss., University of Missouri.
Boserup, E. 1965.The Conditions of Agricultural Growth: The Economics of Agrarian Change Under Population Pressure. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing.
Bradbury, R. 1997–2000. Matrioshka Brains. MS available at www.gwern.net/docs/1999-bradbury-matrioshkabrains.pdf, accessed 1 August, 2013.
Bray, W. and D. Trump. 1970. A Dictionary of Archaeology. London: Allen Lane.
Brown, A. G., S. Tooth, R. C. Chiverrell, J. Rose, D. S. G. Thomas, J. Wainwright, J. E. Bullard, V. R. Thorndycraft, R. Aalto and P. Downs. 2013. “The Anthropocene: Is There a Geomorphological Case?” Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38(4): 431–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/esp.3368
Brown, W. 2001. Politics Out of History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Byles, J. 2005 Rubble: Unearthing the History of Demolition. New York: Harmony Books.
Capra, F. 1996. The Web of Life: A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems. New York: Anchor Books.
Carey, M. 2012. “Climate and History: A Critical Review of Historical Climatology and Climate Change Historiography.” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 3(3): 233–249.
Caro, T., J. Darwin, T. Forrester, C. Ledoux-Bloom and C. Wells. 2012. “Conservation in the Anthropocene.” Conservation Biology 26(1): 185–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01752.x
Chakrabarty, D. 2009. “The Climate of History: Four Theses.” Critical Inquiry 35(2): 197–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/596640
Childe, V.G. 1936. Man Makes Himself. Library of Science and Culture.
Clark, N. 2005. “Ex-orbitant Globality.” Theory, Culture and Society 22(5): 165–185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276405057198
Clark, W. C., P. J. Crutzen and H. J. Schellnhuber. 2004. “Science for Global Sustainability: Toward a New Paradigm.” In Earth System Analysis for Sustainability: Report on the 91St Dahlem Workshop, edited by H. J. Schellnhuber, P. J. Crutzen, W. C. Clark, M. Claussen and H. Held, 1–25. Cambridge, MA and London: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press and Dahlem University Press.
Clarke, B. 2012. “‘Gaia is Not an Organism’: The Early Scientific Collaboration of Lynn Margulis and James Lovelock.” In Lynn Margulis: The Life and Legacy of a Scientific Rebel, edited by Dorion Sagan, 32–43. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green.
Costanza, R., et al. 2012. “Developing an Integrated History and Future of People on Earth (IHOPE).” Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4(1):106–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2012.01.010
Costanza, R., L. Graumlich and W. L. Steffen, eds. 2007. Sustainability or Collapse?: An Integrated History and Future of People on Earth. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Crutzen, P. J. 2002. “Geology of Mankind.” Nature 415 (6867): 23–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/415023a
Crutzen, P. J. and E. F. Stoermer. 2000. “The Anthropocene.” Global Change Newsletter 41: 17–18.
Crutzen, P.J., W. Steffen and J.R. McNeil. 2007. “The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature?” Ambio 36(8): 614–621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[614:TAAHNO]2.0.CO;2
Darrin, A. G. and B. L. O’Leary, eds. 2009. Handbook of Space Engineering, Archaeology, and Heritage. Boca Raton: FL: CRC Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781420084320
Davies, M. I. J. and F. Nkirote M’Mbogori, eds. 2013. Humans and the Environment: New Archaeological Perspectives for the Twenty-first Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Davis, M. 1996. “Cosmic Dancers on History’s Stage? The Permanent Revolution in the Earth Sciences.” New Left Review 217: 48–84.
Davis, R. V. 2011. “Inventing the Present: Historical Roots of the Anthropocene.” Earth Sciences History 30: 63–84.
Dawdy, S. 2010. “Clockpunk Anthropology and the Ruins of Modernity.” Current Anthropology 51(6): 761–793. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/657626
De Jesus, E. C. 1980. The Tobacco Monopoly in the Philippines: Bureaucratic Enterprise and Social Change, 1766–1880. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Deetz, J. 1967. Invitation to Archaeology. Garden City, NY: The Natural History Press.
Deutsches Museum website. 2013. “Anthropocene—Nature and Technology in the Age of Humans.” Special Exhibition at the Deutsches Museum, mission statement. Available online: http://www.deutsches-museum.de/en/exhibitions/special-exhibitions/2014/anthropocene/, accessed July 30, 2013.
Devereux, P. 2001. Stone Age Soundtracks: The Acoustic Archaeology of Ancient Sites. London: Vega.
Dibley, B. 2012. “The Shape of Things to Come.” Seven Theses on the Anthropocene and Attachment. Australian Humanities Review 52. May 2012.
Domanska, E. 2010. “Beyond Anthropocentrism in Historical Studies.” Historein 10: 118–130.
Domanska, E. 2014. “Archaeological Theory: Paradigm Shift.” In Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, edited by C. Smith, 375–379. New York: Springer.
Dyson, F. J. 1960. Search for Artificial Stellar Sources of Infrared Radiation. Science 131: 1667–1668.
Edgeworth, M. 2011. Fluid Pasts: Archaeology of Flow. Bristol: Bristol Classical.
Edgeworth, M. 2013. “The Relationship Between Archaeological Stratigraphy and Artificial Ground and Its Significance In The Anthropocene.” In Waters et al., eds, forthcoming. A Stratigraphical Basis for the Anthropocene. The Geological Society: Lyell Collection Special Publications 395.
Egan, M. 2002. “Subaltern Environmentalism in the United States: A Historiographic Review.” Environment and History 8(1): 21–41.
Ehlers, E. and T. Kraft, eds. 2006. Earth System Science in the Anthropocene. New York: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/b137853
Ellis, E. and N. Ramankutty. “Putting People in the Map: Anthropogenic Biomes of the World.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(8), (2008): 439–447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/070062
Ellsworth, E. and J. Kruse (and R. Beatty). 2013. Making the Geologic Now: Responses to Material Conditions of Contemporary Life. Brooklyn, NY: Punctum.
EPA [Environmental Protection Agency]. 1994. “OPPT Chemical Fact Sheets: Styrene.” Electronic document. http://www.epa.gov/chemfact/styre-sd.pdf, accessed August 23, 2013.
Fabian, J. 2002. Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes Its Object. New York: Columbia University Press.
Faragher, J. M. 1994. Rereading Frederick Jackson Turner. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Foley, R. 1981. “Off-site Archaeology: An alternative Approach for the Short-sited.” In Pattern of the Past: Studies in Honour of David Clarke, edited by Ian Hodder, Glynn Isaac and Norman Hammond, 157–183. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Francis, Jr., P. 2002. Asia’s Maritime Bead Trade: 300 B.C. to the Present. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
Gaffney, O. and Pharand-Deschenes, F. 2012. “Welcome to the Anthropocene” Film. Available online: http://vimeo.com/39048998
Gale, S. J. and P. G. Hoare. 2012. “The Stratigraphic Status of the Anthropocene.” The Holocene 22(12): 1491–1494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959683612449764
Global Change and the Earth System. http://www.igbp.net/globalchange.4.d8b4c3c12bf3be638a80001026.html.
Gonzalez-Ruibal, A. 2006. “The Dream of Reason: An Archaeology of the Failures of Modernity in Ethiopia.” Journal of Social Archaeology 6(2): 175–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1469605306064239
Goodman, L. 2010. “Quiet, Please: Gordon Hempton on the Search for Silence in a Noisy World.” The Sun. September 2010, Issue 417.
Gordon, R. B. and P. M. Malone. 1994. The Texture of Industry: An Archaeological View of the Industrialization of North America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gorman, A.C. 2009. “The Gravity of Archaeology.” Archaeologies: The Journal of the World Archaeological Congress 5(2:) 344–359
Graves-Brown, P. 2013 “The Box and the Encinal Terminal: An Archaeology of Globalization.” Post-Medieval Archaeology 47(1): 253–260.
Green, W. A. 1995. “Periodizing World History.” History and Theory 34(2): 99–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2505437
Harris, E. C. 1979. Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy. London: Academic Press.
Hasegawa, K. 2004. Constructing Civil Society in Japan: Voices of Environmental Movements. Melbourne: Trans Pacific Press.
Hassan, F. 2011. Water History for Our Times, vol. 2. IHP Essays on Water History. Paris: UNESCO.
Headland, R. Chronological List of Antarctic Expeditions and Related Historical Events. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Hibbard, K. A. et al. 2007. “Group Report: Decadal-Scale Interactions of Humans and the Environment.” In Sustainability or Collapse?: An Integrated History and Future of People on Earth. edited by R. Costanza, L. Graumlich and W.L. Steffen, 342–375. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Hibbard, K. A., et al. 2010. Developing an Integrated History and Future of People on Earth (IHOPE): Research Plan. IGBP Secretariat. (http://www.uvm.edu/giee/pubpdfs/Costanza_2012_Current_Opinion_in_Environmental_Sustainability.pdf, accessed August 15, 2013.
Hodder, I. 2012. Entangled: An Archaeology of the Relationships Between Humans and Things. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118241912
Hornborg, A. and C. L. Crumley, eds. 2006. The World System and the Earth system: Global Socioenvironmental Change and Sustainability Since the Neolithic. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.
Hudson, M.J., M. Aoyama, K.C. Hoover, J. Uchiyama. 2012. “Prospects and Challenges for an Archaeology of Global Environmental Change.” WIREs Climate Change 3: 313–328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wcc.174
Hudson. M. J. 2013. “Navigating Disciplinary Challenges to Global Sustainability Science: An Archaeological Model.” Documenta Praehistorica XL 219–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.4312/dp.40.17
Hui, A., J. Kursell and M. W. Jackson, eds. 2013. Music, Sound and the Laboratory from 1750–1980. Osiris 28. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
International Commission of Stratigraphy. 2013. Working Group on the Anthropocene website. Available online: http://quaternary.stratigraphy.org/
Jäger, J., et al. 2012. Responses to Environmental and Societal Challenges for Our Unstable Earth (RESCUE). European Science Foundation, Strasbourg and European Cooperation in Science and Technology, Brussels. Available online: http://www.esf.org/fileadmin/Public_documents/Publications/rescue.pdf, accessed August 15, 2013.
John, D. W. and J. C. Jackson. 1973. “The Tobacco Industry of North Borneo: A Distinctive Form of Plantation Agriculture.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 4 (1): 88–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002246340001643X
Kirch, P. V. 1994. “Production, Intensification, and the Early Hawaiian Kingdom. Pacific Production Systems: Approaches to Economic Prehistory.” In Pacific Production Systems: Approaches to Economic Prehistory, edited by D. E. Yen and J. M. J. Mummery, 190–209. Canberra: Australian National University.
Krause, B. L. 1987. “The Niche Hypothesis: How Animals Taught Us to Dance and Sing.” at Available online: http://users.auth.gr/paki/files/soundscape/referances/niche.pdf, accessed May 5, 2012.
Latour, B. 2013. An Inquiry into Modes of Existence. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Latour, B. 2013. Facing Gaia: A New Enquiry into Natural Religion. Series of Gifford lectures, Edinburgh. Available online: http://www.bruno-latour.fr/node/486
Latour, B. We Have Never Been Modern. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.
Leach, H. M. 1999. “Intensification in the Pacific.” Current Anthropology 40(3): 311–339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/200021
Leonard, A. 2010. The Story of Stuff: How Our Obsession with Stuff Is Trashing the Planet, Our Communities, and Our Health—and a Vision for Change. New York: Free Press.
Lovbrand, E., J. Stripple and B. Wiman. 2009. “Earth System Governmentality. Reflections on Science in the Anthropocene.” Global Environmental Change 19: 7–13.
Lovelock, J. E. 1979. Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Lucas, G. 2001. Critical Approaches to Fieldwork. London: Routledge.
Lucas, G. 2004. “Modern Disturbances: On the Ambiguities of Archaeology.” Modernism/Modernity 11(1): 109–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/mod.2004.0015
Margulis, L. 1995. “Gaia is a Tough Bitch.” In The Third Culture: Beyond the Scientific Revolution, edited by J. Brockman, 129–151. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Margulis, L. 1998. Symbiotic Planet: A New Look at Evolution. New York: Basic Books.
Margulis, L. and D. Sagan. 2000. What is Life? Berkeley: University of California Press.
Marx, K. 1975. Early Writings. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
McCloskey, M. and H. Spalding. “A Reconnaissance Level Inventory of the Amount of Wilderness Remaining in the World.” Ambio 18(4): 221–227.
McNeill, W. H. 1995. “The Changing Shape of World History.” History and Theory 34(2): 8–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2505432
Meadows, D., D. Meadows, J. Randers and W. Behrens III. 1972. Limits to Growth. New York: Club of Rome.
Merchant, C. 2003. Reinventing Eden: The Fate of Nature in Western Culture. London: Routledge.
Meybeck, M. 2003. “Global Analysis of River Systems: From Earth System Controls to Anthropocene Syndromes.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences 358(1440):1935–1955. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2003.1379
Milani, A. and A. Nobili. 1992. “An Example of Stable Chaos in the Solar System.” Nature 357: 569–571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/357569a0
Miller, D. 2010. Stuff. London: Polity Press.
Molz, M. and M. G. Edwards. 2013. “Research Across Boundaries.” Integral Review 9: 1–11.
Morris, W. 2008. Useful Work v. Useless Toil. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Morton, T. 2010. The Ecological Thought. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Morton, T. 2011. “Zero Landscapes in the Time of Hyperobjects.” Graz Architectural Magazine 7: 78–87.
Morton, T. 2013. Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology after the End of the World. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Mosley, S. 2006. “Common Ground: Integrating Social and Environmental History.” Journal of Social History 39(3): 915–933. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jsh.2006.0007
Mumford, L. 1934. Technics and Civilization. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.
NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. 2012. Orbital Debris Frequently Asked Questions. Available online: http://orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov/faqs.html#3, accessed 1 August 2013.
Odishaw, H. 1958. “International Geophysical Year.” Science 128: 1599–1609.
Olsen, B., M. Shanks, T. Webmoor and C. Witmore. 2012. Archaeology: The Discipline of Things. Berkeley: University of California Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520274167.001.0001
Ottinger, G. and B. R. Cohen. 2011. Technoscience and Environmental Justice: Expert Cultures in a Grassroots Movement. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262015790.001.0001
Parikh, D. and K. Hall. 2012. “The Two Archaeologies: Crossing the Great Divide,” Archaeological Review from Cambridge 27: 1–8.
Poincaré, H. 1963. Mathematics and Science: Last Essays. New York: Dover Publications.
Port Numbay International website. 2013. “Indonesia Tobacco.” Available online: http://www.portnumbay.com/indonesia-tobacco-history
Price, S. J., J. R. Ford, A. H. Cooper and C. Neal. 2011. “Humans as Major Geological and Geomorphological Agents in the Anthropocene: The Significance of Artificial Ground in Great Britain.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 369: 1056–1084. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2010.0296
Prigogine, I. 2004. “Beyond Being and Becoming.” New Perspectives Quarterly 21: 5–12.
Prigogine, I. and I. Stengers. 1984. Order Out of Chaos: Man’s New Dialogue with Nature. London: Flamingo.
Pulido, L. 1996. Environmentalism and Economic Justice: Two Chicano Struggles in the Southwest. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
Rath, R. C. 2003. How Early America Sounded. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Rathje, W. L. and C. Murphy. 2001. Rubbish! The Archaeology of Garbage. Tuscon: The University of Arizona Press.
Redman, C.L. 1999. Human Impact on Ancient Environments. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.
Reznikoff, I. 2006. “The Evidence of the Use of Sound Resonance from Palaeolithic to Medieval Times.” In Archaeoacoustics, edited by C. Scarre and G. Lawson, 77–84. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
Rickard, T. A. 1905. The Copper Mines of Lake Superior. New York: Engineering and Mining Journal.
Rindos, D. 1984. The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective. New York: Academic Press.
Robbins, P. 2013. “Choosing Metaphors for the Anthropocene: Cultural and Political Ecologies.” In The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Cultural Geography, edited by N. C. Johnson, R. H. Schein and J. Winders, 307–319. New York: Wiley-Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118384466.ch27
Rockström, J., et al. 2009. “A Safe Operating Space for Humanity.” Nature 461(7263): 472–475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/461472a
Rodger, A. “Chapter 11: Antarctica: A Global Change Perspective.” In Antarctica. Global Science From a Frozen Continent, edited by D. Walton, 301–324.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Rose, N. 2013. “The Human Sciences in a Biological Age.” Theory, Culture, Society 30: 3–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276412456569
Ruddiman, W. F. 2003. “The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era Began Thousands of Years Ago.” Climatic Change 61(3): 261–293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:CLIM.0000004577.17928.fa
Ruddiman, W. F. 2005. “How Did Humans First Alter Global Climate?” Scientific American 292(3): 46–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0305-46
Ruddiman, W.F. 2005. Plows, Plagues and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sanderson, E., M. Jaiteh, M. Levy, K. Redford, A. Wannebo and G. Woolmer. “The Human Footprint and the Last of the Wild.” BioScience 52(10): 891–904. http://dx.doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052[0891:THFATL]2.0.CO;2
Scarre, C. and G. Lawson, eds. 2006. Archaeoacoustics. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
Schaeffer, P. 2012. In Search of a Concrete Music. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Schafer, R. M. 1977. The Tuning of the World. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.
Schiffer, M.B. 2010. Taking Charge: The Electric Automobile in America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books.
Schnapp, A. 1996. The Discovery of the Past: The Origins of Archaeology. London: British Museum Press.
Schrader, F. 1919. “The Foundations of Geography in the XXth Century.” The Geographical Teacher 10(2): 44–53.
Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty. “Protocol on environmental protection to the Antarctic treaty. Madrid, 1991.” Available online: http://www.ats.aq/documents/recatt/Att006_e.pdf, accessed August 10, 2013.
Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty. “The Antarctic Treaty. Washington DC, 1959.” Available online: http://www.ats.aq/documents/ats/treaty_original.pdf, accessed August 10, 2013.
Seidl, R., F. Brand, M. Stauffacher, P. Krütli, Q. Le,
A. Spörri, G. Meylan, C. Moser, M. González and R. Scholz. 2013. “Science with Society in the Anthropocene.” Ambio 42: 5–12.
Serres, M. 1995. The Natural Contract. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Shanks, M. 1992a. “Critical Romanticism on a Visit to the Past.” Talk given in Helsinki, electronic document. http://documents.stanford.edu/MichaelShanks/126, accessed May 5, 2013.
Shanks, M. 1992b. Experiencing the Past. London: Routledge.
Shanks, M. 1998. “The Life of an Artifact in an Interpretive Archaeology.” Fennoscandia Archaeologica 15: 15–30.
Shanks, M., D. Platt and W. L. Rathje. 2004. “The Perfume of Garbage: Modernity and the archaeological.” Modernism/Modernity 11(1): 61–83.
Shapiro, J. A. 2011. Evolution: A View from the 21st Century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press Science.
Short, T. L. 2007. Peirce’s Theory of Signs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Simmel, G. 1968. The Conflict in Modern Culture and Other Essays. New York: New York Teachers’ College Press.
Simpson-Housley, P. Antarctica: Exploration, Perception, and Metaphor. New York: Routledge, 1992. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203309070
Smith, B. 2007. “Niche Construction and the Behavioral Context of Plant and Animal Domestication.” Evolutionary Anthropology 16: 188–199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/evan.20135
Smith, B. D. and M. A. Zeder. 2013. “The Onset Of The Anthropocene.” Anthropocene. Available online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ancene.2013.05.001
Smolin, L. 1997. The Life of the Cosmos. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Solli, B. 2011. “Some Reflections of Heritage and Archaeology in the Anthropocene.” Norwegian Archaeological Review 44(1): 40–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00293652.2011.572677
Solli, B., B. Burström, E. Domanska, M. Edgeworth, A. González-Ruibal, C. Holtorf, G. Lucas, T. Oestigaard, L. Smith, and C. Witmore. 2011. Some Reflections on Heritage and Archaeology in the Anthropocene. Norwegian Archaeological Review 44(1): 40–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00293652.2011.572677
Sörlin, S. 2012. “Environmental Humanities: Why Should Biologists Interested in the Environment Take the Humanities Seriously?” BioScience 62(9): 788–789. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/bio.2012.62.9.2
Spiegelman, H and B. Sheehan. 2005. Unintended Consequences: Municipal Solid Waste Management and the Throwaway Society. Athens, GA: Product Policy Institute.
Steffen, W. L., et al. 2005. Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure. Berlin: Springer.
Steffen, W. L., J. Crutzen and J. R. McNeill. 2007. “The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces Of Nature?” Ambio 36(8): 614–621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[614:TAAHNO]2.0.CO;2
Steffen, W. L., J. Grinevald, P. Crutzen and J. McNeill. 2011. “The Anthropocene: Conceptual and Historical Perspectives.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 369(1938): 842–867. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2010.0327
Steffen, W., P. J. Crutzen an