Locating Religion in South Asia: Islamicate Definitions and Categories
Issue: Vol 10 No. 2 (2014)
Journal: Comparative Islamic Studies
The category of Islam as a religion—as defined within religious studies discourses—informs Islamic studies across disciplines, even as it appears in fields that may not have methodological, theoretical, or topical overlaps with the study of religion. By locating Islamicate, South Asian definitions of religion as analogous, related, and, in some cases, influences to Euro American definitions of religion, this article troubles the relationship between the study of religion, definitions of religion, and non-European, non Christian actors. This essay contributes to the growing body of literature asking how and when native definitions of categories of (or like) religion have been incorporated or ignored within the broadest definitions and specifically how Islamicate texts contribute to the history of the study of religion.
Author: Ilyse R Morgenstein Fuerst
Abuʾl Fazl. 1873–1887. Akbarnāma. eds. Agha Ahmad Ali and Abdur Rahim. Calcutta:
Abū al-Faẓl ibn Mubārak. 2010. The Ā-ʿīn-i Akbarī: A gazetteer and administrative manual of Akbar's empire and past history of India. Translated and edited by H. Blochmann, D. C. Phillott, H. S. Jarrett and Jadunath Sarkar. Kolkata: Asiatic Society.
Agrawal, C. M. 2001. Hindu Officers Under Akbar. Delhi: Indian Publishers and Distributors.
Ahmed, Shahab. 2016. What Is Islam? The Case for Being Islamic. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400873586
Āʾīn-i Akbarī of Abuʾl Fazl-i-‘Āllami. vols 1, 2, and 3 1993. Frankfurt am Main: Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University.
al-Maʿali, Abu Bayan al-adyan c. 1092. In Charles-Henri-Auguste Schefer, Chrestomathic Persane, vol. 1, ch. 6: 1838, 132–171.
Amitai, Reuven. 2000. “Mongol Imperial Ideology and the Ilkhanid War against the Mamluks.” The Mongol Empire and its Legacy. eds. Reuven Amitai-Preiss and David O. Morgan, 57–72. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
Asad, Talal. 1993. Genealogies of Religion. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
Asher, Cynthia and Catherine Talbot. 2006. India Before Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511808586
Athar Ali, M. 1978. “Towards an interpretation of the Mughal Empire,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1: 38–49.
Benfey, Theodor and G. H. Schodde. 1884. “Semitic and Indo-European culture.” The Old Testament Student 4(4): 170–171. https://doi.org/10.1086/469548
Bowen, H. V. 2006. The Business of Empire: The East India Company and Imperial Britain, 1756–1833. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bryant, Edwin F. and Laurie L. Patton, eds. 2005. The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. New York: Routledge.
Cahen, İnalcık and Hardy 2012. “Ḏj̱izya.” Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, and W. P. Heinrichs. Leiden: Brill.
Chidester, David. 1996. Savage Systems: Colonialism and Comparative Religion in Southern
Africa. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
Childe, V. Gordon. 1926. The Aryans; a study of Indo-European origins. New York: A. A. Knopf.
Cory, Stephen. 2004. “Ahl Al-Kitab.” In Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, edited by Richard C. Martin, vol. 1, 27–29. New York: Macmillan Reference USA.
Cox, Sir George W. 1882 . The mythology of the Aryan nations, New and Revised Edition. London: Scribner & Welford.
Dubussion, Daniel. 2007. The Western Construction of Religion: Myths, Knowledge, and Ideology. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
East India question. A short abstract of the argument in support of the East-India Company’s petition to Parliament, for a renewal of their charter 1813. London: Printed for Black, Parry, and Co. Leadenhall Street.
Economy of the Mughal Empire—A Statistical Study. 1987. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Eliade, Mircea. 1959. The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion. Translated by Willard R. Trask. New York: Harcourt.
Episodes in the Life of Akbar: Contemporary Records and Reminiscences 1994. New Delhi:
National Book Trust of India.
Ernst, Carl W. 1992. Eternal Garden: Mysticism, History, and Politics at a South Asian Sufi Center. Albany: State University New York Press.
Ernst, Carl W. 2003. Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Ernst, Carl W. 2011. “The limits of universalism in Islam: The case of Indian religions.” Muslim World 101: 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-1913.2010.01338.x
Fitzgerald, Timothy. 2000. The Ideology of Religious Studies. New York: Oxford University Press.
Flood, Gavin. 1999. Beyond Phenomenology: Rethinking the Study of Religion. New York: Cassel.
Gottschalk, Peter. 2013. Religion, Science, and Empire: Classifying Hinduism and Islam in British India. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Guha, Ranajit and Gayatri Spivak, eds. 1988. Selected Subaltern Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hodgson, Marshall. 1974. Venture of Islam: Volume 1: The Classical Age of Islam. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Jackson, Peter. 2006. “World-conquest and local accommodation: Threat and blandishment in Mongol diplomacy.” History and historiography of post-Mongol Central Asia and the Middle East: Studies in Honor of John E. Woods, edited by Judith Pfeiffer and Sholeh A. Quinn, 3–22. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
Khan, Iqtidar Alam. 2009. “Tracing sources of principles of Mughal governance:
A critique of recent historiography.” Social Scientist 37(5/6): 45–54.
King, Richard. 1999. Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India, and “The Mystic East.” New York: Routledge.
Lawrence, Bruce B. 1975. “The Use of Hindu religious texts in al-Bīrūnī’s India with special reference to Patañjali’s Yoga-Sūtras.” The Scholar and the Saint: Studies in Commemoration of Abuʾl Rayhān al-Bīrūnī and Jalāl al-Dīn al-Rūmī, edited Peter J. Chelkowski, 29–48. New York: New York University Press.
Lawrence, Bruce B. 1976. Shahrastānī on the Indian Religions. The Hague: Mouton & Co. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110800999
Lincoln, Bruce. 2012. Gods and Demons, Priests and Scholars: Critical Explorations in the History of Religion. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Lipton, Gregory A. 2013. “Making Islam fit: Ibn ʿArabi and the idea of Sufism in the west.” Unpublished PhD, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Lorenzen, David. 1999. “Who invented Hinduism?” Comparative Studies in Society and History 41(4): 630–659. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417599003084
Mandair, Arvind-Pal. 2009. Religion and the Specter of the West: Sikhism, India, Postcoloniality, and the Politics of Translation. New York: Columbia University Press.
Marshall, P. J. 1965. The Impeachment of Warren Hastings. Oxford Historical Series, Second Series. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Masuzawa, Tomoko. 1993. In Search of Dreamtime: the Quest for the Origin of Religion.
Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Masuzawa, Tomoko. 2005. The Invention of World Religions: Or, How European Universalism Was Preserved in the Language of Pluralism. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226922621.001.0001
McCutcheon, Russell T. 1997. Manufacturing Religion: The Discourse on Sui Generis Religion and the Politics of Nostalgia. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Minutes of Evidence taken before the Right Honourable The House of Lords in the Lords Committees, appointed to take into consideration so much of the speech of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent as relates to the Chapter of the East-India Company, and to the Providing effectually for the future Government of the Provinces of India; and to report to the House; and to whom were referred the Petition of the United Company of Merchants of England trading to the East-Indies, respecting their Charter; and also the several Petitions presented against and in favour of the Renewal of the said Charter. 1813. London: Printed by Order of the Court of Directors of the Information of the Proprietors, Cox and Son.
Moosvi, Shireen. 2008. People, Taxation and Trade in Mughal India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Mufti, Aamir. 2007. Enlightenment in the Colony: The Jewish Question and the Crisis of Postcolonial Culture. New Jersey, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Müller, F. Max. 1873. Introduction to the Science of Religion. London: Longmans Green & Co.
Nongbri, Brent. 2013. Before Religion: the History of a Modern Concept. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. https://doi.org/10.12987/yale/9780300154160.001.0001
Sachau, Eduard, trans. 1964 . Alberuni’s India. Reprint. Delhi: S. Chand & Co.
Said, Edward. 1993. Culture and Imperialism. New York: Vintage Books.
Schimmel, Annemarie. 2004. The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture. London: Reaktion Books.
Sen, Amartya. 2005. The Argumentative Indian: Writings on Indian History, Culture and Identity. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Shahrastānī. 1993 . al–Milal wa al-Nihal. Translated by Daniel Gimaret and Guy Monnot, Shahrastani: Livre des religions et des sects. Louvain: Peeters.
Smith, Jonathan Z. 1997. “A Matter of Class: Taxonomies of Religion.” In Relating Religion: Essays in the Study of Religion. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Smith, Jonathan Z. 1998. “Religion, Religions, Religious.” in Critical Terms for Religious Studies, ed. Mark C. Taylor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Smith, Jonathan Z. 2004. “Religion, Religions, Religious.” In Relating Religion: Essays in the Study of Religion. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Smith, Wilfred Cantwell. 1962 . The Meaning and End of Religion, Foreword by John Hick. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
Smith, Wilfred Cantwell. 1981. “Islamic history as a concept.” In On Understanding Islam: Selected Studies. The Hague: Mouton Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110825800.3
Stausberg Michael and Steven Engler, eds. 2014. The Routledge Handbook of Research Methods in the Study of Religion Routledge Handbooks. London: Routledge.
Taves, Ann. 2011. Religious Experience Reconsidered: A Building-Block Approach to the Study of Religion and Other Special Things. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
van der Veer, Peter. 1994. Religious Nationalism: Hindus and Muslims in India. Berkeley: University of California Press.