Maria Clara in the Twenty-first Century: The Uneasy Discourse between the Cult of the Virgin Mary and Filipino Women’s Lived Realities
Journal: Religious Studies and Theology
The Virgin Mary looms large as the image of a “good” Filipina or Filipino woman in both cultural and religious landscapes in the Philippines. A “good Filipina” imagery points specifically to the weak or passive woman, who is represented by a satirical character named Maria Clara. The Roman Catholic Church reinforces such imagery to highlight the Madonna-Whore dichotomy. However, in the twenty-first century, Filipino women have come to challenge the image of a good woman as weak and passive person. This paper explores the challenges that Filipinas face in their everyday lives, which call for a re-examination of the role of Catholic faith in their lived experiences.
Author: Jeane C. Peracullo
Bräunlein, Peter J. 2014. “Who defines “the Popular”? Post-Colonial Discours¬es on National Identity and Popular Christianity in the Philippines.” In Religion, Tradition and the Popular: Transcultural Views from Asia and Europe, edited by Judith Schlehe and Evamaria Sandkühler, 75–80. Brsg, Germany: Transcript-Verlag. https://www.academia.edu/6562138/Who_defines_the_popular_Postcolonial_discourses_on_national_identity_and_popular_Christianity_in_the_Philippines
Brazal, Agnes. 2010. “Harmonizing Power-Beauty: Gender Fluidity in the Migra¬tion Context.” Asian Christian Review 4(10): 32–46.
Carandang, Ma. Lourdes. 2007. Nawala Ang Ilaw Ng Tahanan: Case Studies of Families Left Behind. Quezon City: Anvil.
Cayabyab, Marc Jayson. 2016. “Duterte hits ‘Melodramatic’ Inquirer Front Page Photo.” July 25. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/799260/duterte-on-photo-of-wife-cradling-slain-drug-pusher-nagda-dramahan-tayo
Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines. 1975. “Ang Mahal na Birhen Mary in Philippine Life Today.” A Pastoral Letter on the Blessed Virgin Mary by the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines. http://cbcp¬online.net/v2/?p=198
———. 2005. “With Mary, the Migrants and Their Families Find Life in the Eucharist.” A Message for the 19th National Migrants’ Sunday by the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines. http://www.cbcponline. net/ecmi/letters/19th%20National%20Migrants%20Sunday.htm
Cruz, Gemma. 2007. “Em-body-ing Theology: Theological Reflections on the Experience of Filipina Domestic Workers in Hong Kong.” In Body and Sexuality, edited by Agnes Brazal and Andrea Si, 60–74. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila.
Constantino, Karina. 1983. “Babae.” Kalayaan: Isang Daang Taong Paggunita. Quezon City: Dypro Records/Dyna Music.
De la Cruz, Deidre. 2015. Mother Figured Marian Apparitions and the Making of a Filipino Universal. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.
Fiorenza, Elisabeth Schüssler. 2013. “Critical Feminist Studies in Re¬ligion.” Critical Research on Religion 1(1): 43–50. https://doi. org/10.1177/2050303213476112
Furusawa, Yuria. 2013. “Image and Identity: A Study on the Images of the Vir¬gin Mary Clad in a Local Dress in the Philippines.” In The Work of the 2011/2012 API Fellows, edited by Surichai Wun’Gaeo, Michiko Yoshida and Chadapan Malipan, 88–97. Bangkok: Nippon Foundation.
John Paul II. 1981. Laborem Exercens: Encyclical Letter on Human Work. http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_14091981_laborem-exercens.html
Joy, Morny. 2004. “Postcolonial and Gendered Reflections: Challenges for Re¬ligious Studies.” In Gender, Religion and Diversity: Cross-Cultural Per¬spectives, edited by Ursula King and Tina Beattie, 28–39. New York: Continuum.
Kawahashi, Noriko. 2013. “Gendering Religious Studies: Reconstructing Reli¬gion and Gender Studies in Japan.” In Gender, Religion and Education in a Chaotic Postmodern World, edited by Zehavit Gross, Lynn Davies and Al-Khansaa Diab, 111–123. New York, London: Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5270-2_8
Lopez-Wu, Ma. Glenda and Dina Delias. 2015. “Filipino Domestic Workers Rights and Welfare: Discursive framings by NGOs in Hong Kong and the Philippines.” Philippine Sociological Review 63: 7–31.
Mactal, Roland. 2007. “Mariological Developments after Second Vatican Coun¬cil and the Impact of Marian Devotion in the Philippines.” Philippiniana Sacra XLD (25): 249–300.
Mabanglao, Ruth E. 1997. “Liham ni Pinay Mula sa Brunei” (Pinay’s Letter from Brunei). In Philippine Literature: History and Anthology (Revised Edi¬tion), edited by Bienvenido Lumbera and Cynthia Lumbera, n.p. Pasig City: Anvil. https://www2.hawaii.edu/~mabanglo/engPinay_brunei.htm
Manazan, Mary John. 2005. “Woman and Christianity.” World Student Christian Federation. http://www.wscfap.org/resources/btreflec¬tions/2005/2005-mananzan_woman.html
Paterno Esmaquel II. 2016. “Duterte hits ‘Pietà’ image of slain drug suspect.” July 26. http://www.rappler.com/ nation/141008-duterte-pieta-slain-drug-suspect-inquirer
Peracullo, Jeane. 2015. “Kumakalam Na Sikmura: Hunger as Filipino Womens Awakening to Ecofeminist Consciousness.” Journal of the Feminist Stud¬ies of Religion 31(2): 25–44. https://doi.org/10.2979/jfemistudreli.31.2.25
_____2012. “A Filipino Feminist Perspective On The Rh Bill Debates.” SDRC Occasional Paper Series 2(B): 1–10.
Philippine Statistics Authority. 2013. “Total Number of OFWs is Estimated at 2.2 Million (Results from the 2012 Survey on Overseas Filipinos)” July 11. http://web0.psa.gov.ph/content/total-number-ofws-estimated-22-mil¬lion-results-2012-survey-overseas-filipinos
Philippine Statistics Authority. 2016. 2016 Women and Men in the Philippines Statistical Handbook. Quezon City: PSA.
Parmanand. Sharmila. 2014. “Mapping the Path to Philippine Reproductive Rights Legislation Signs of Progress Amidst Obstacles.” Social Transfor¬mation 2(1): 61–80.
Reyes, Melanie. 2008. Migration and Filipino Children Left-Behind: A Literature Review. Quezon City: Miriam College/UNICEF.154
Soriano, Cheryll Ruth R., Sun Sun Lim and Milagros Rivera-Sanchez. 2015. “The Virgin Mary with a Mobile Phone: Ideologies of Mothering and Technol¬ogy Consumption in Philippine Television Advertisements.” Communica¬tion, Culture & Critique 8: 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1111/cccr.12070
Tanyag, Maria. 2015. “Unravelling the Intersections of Power: The Case of Sex¬ual and Reproductive Freedom in the Philippines.” Women’s Studies In¬ternational Forum 53: 63–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2015.10.002
The General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops.2014. Lineamenta: The Vocation and Mission of The Family in the Church and Contempo¬rary World. http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/synod/documents/ rc_synod_doc_20141209_lineamenta-xiv-assembly_en.html