Across the Surface of the Sea: Maritime Interaction in the Cycladic Early Bronze Age
Issue: Vol 31 No. 1 (2018)
Journal: Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology
The creation of maritime network models has been a major focus of archaeological investigations of the Early Bronze Age in the Cyclades (Greece). While archaeologists acknowledge the importance of environmental variables for ancient seafaring, they have tended to treat the sea surface as an undifferentiated space onto which network models are imposed. The present study of Early Cycladic maritime connectivity incorporates the Aegean Sea as a varied and varying surface affected by seasonal and temporal changes. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software, I create a cost-surface model of the ancient seascape that incorporates environmental, archaeological, and technological variables. The application of a cost-surface model enables the consideration of Early Cycladic settlements not merely as points in space but as embedded within a contiguous surface of land and sea. This study highlights the complex and variable conditions facing Bronze Age seafarers. The results of the study challenge the conceptualization of the Cyclades as a unified island group; while the central Cyclades exhibit high connectivity at the local scale, islands on the edges of the cluster may have relied on less-frequent travel at the regional scale, which nevertheless persisted throughout the Early Cycladic period. Variations in wind patterns due to seasonality and directionality indicate that most journeys would require an overnight stay at the destination, suggesting the importance of maintaining intercommunity ties.
Author: Katherine Jarriel
2012 Going by boat: the forager-collector continuum at sea. In B. Fitzhugh and J. Habu (eds.), Beyond Foraging and Collecting: Evolutionary Change in Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems, 19-52. New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers.
2011 Ancient sailing—routes and trade patterns: the impact of human factors. In D. Robinson and A. Wilson (eds.), Maritime Archaeology and Ancient Trade in the Mediterranean. Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology Monograph 6: 61-80. Oxford: Centre for Maritime Archaeology.
2003 Wood charcoal from Santorini (Thera): new evidence for climate, vegetation, and timber imports in the Aegean Bronze Age. Antiquity 77: 471-84. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X0009253X
Ausubel, J.H., C. Marchetti and P.S. Meyer
1998 Toward green mobility: the evolution of transport. European Review 6: 137-56. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1062798700003185
1991 Carènes égéennes à l’âge du Bronze. In R. Laffineur and L. Basch (eds.), Thalassa: L’Égée préhistorique et la mer. Aegaeum 7: 43-54. Liège: Université de Liège.
1984 Researches among the Cyclades. Journal of Hellenic Studies 5: 42-58. https://doi.org/10.2307/
2013 The Ancient Sailing Season. Mnemosyne Supplements: History and Archaeology of Classical Antiquity 351. Leiden: Brill.
Bosanquet, R.C., and F.B. Welch
1904 The obsidian trade. In T.D. Atkinson, R.C. Bosanquet, C.C. Edgar, A.J. Evans, D.G. Hogarth, D. Mackenzie, C. Smith and F.B. Welch (eds.), Excavations at Phylakopi in Melos. Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies Supplementary Paper 4: 216-33. London: Macmillan.
2006 The terracotta boat model. In L. Marangou, C. Renfrew, C. Doumas and G. Gavalas (eds.), Markiani, Amorgos: An Early Bronze Age Fortified Settlement. Overview of the 1985-1991 Investigations. British School at Athens Supplementary Volume 40: 210-11. London: British School at Athens.
1989 The longboat and society in the Cyclades in the Keros-Syros culture. American Journal of Archaeology 93: 319-37. https://doi.org/10.2307/505584
1992 The spirit is willing. Antiquity 66: 542-46. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00081722
1993 Ulysses without sails: trade, distance, knowledge, and power in the Early Cyclades. World Archaeology 24: 315-30. https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.1993.9980211
2000 An Island Archaeology of the Early Cyclades. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2013 The Making of the Middle Sea: A History of the Mediterranean from the Beginning to the Emergence of the Classical World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2014 The roots and shoots of archaeological network analysis: a citation analysis and review of the archaeological use of formal network methods. In S. Evans and K. Felder (eds.), Social Network Perspectives in Archaeology. Special issue of Archaeological Review from Cambridge 29(1): 18-41.
2001 Ceramic age seafaring and interaction potential in the Antilles: a computer simulation. Current Anthropology 42: 308-13. https://doi.org/10.
Callaghan, R.T., and W. Bray
2007 Simulating prehistoric sea contacts between Costa Rica and Colombia. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 2: 4-23. https://doi.org/
Callaghan, R.T., and S.M. Fitzpatrick
2008 Examining prehistoric migration patterns in the Palauan Archipelago: a computer simulated analysis of drift voyaging. Asian Perspectives 47: 28-44. https://doi.org/10.1353/asi.2008.0007
2008 Cinnabar and the Cyclades: body modification and political structure in the late EBI southern Aegean. In H. Erkanal, H. Hauptmann, V. Şahoğlu and R. Tuncel (eds.), The Aegean in the Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age, 119-29. Ankara: Ankara University Press.
2016 Obsidian consumption in the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene Aegean: contextualizing new data from Mesolithic Crete. Annual of the British School at Athens 111: 13-34. https://doi.org/10.1017/S006824541600006X
1979 Four problems in Cycladic prehistory. In J.L. Davis and J.F. Cherry (eds.), Papers in Cycladic Prehistory. UCLA Institute of Archaeology Monograph 14: 22-47. Los Angeles: Institute of Archaeology, University of California.
Conolly, J., and M. Lake
2006 Geographical Information Systems in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511807459
Dalongeville, R., and J. Renault-Miskovsky
1993 Paysages passés et actuels de l’île de Naxos. In R. Dalongeville and G. Rougement (eds.), Recherches dans les Cyclades, 9-57. Lyons: Maison de l’Orient Méditerranéen.
Di Piazza, A.
2014 An isochrone map of the prehistoric seascape around Samoa. Geographical Research 52: 74-84. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-5871.12037
Di Piazza, A., P. Di Piazza and E. Pearthree
2007 Sailing virtual canoes across Oceania: revisiting island accessibility. Journal of Archaeological Science 34: 1219-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2006.10.013
1965 Κορφή τ› Αρωνιού. Μικρά ανασκαφική έρευνα εν Νάξω. Αρχαιολογικόν. Δελτίον 20: 41-64.
2014 New insights into the initiation and venting of the Bronze-Age eruption of Santorini (Greece), from component analysis. Bulletin of Volcanology 76: 794. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-014-0794-x
2008 The climatic and physiogenic controls of the eastern Mediterranean over the late Pleistocene climates in the southern Levant and its neighboring deserts. Global and Planetary Change 60: 165-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.02.003
2014 Evidence of repeated late Holocene rapid subsidence in the SE Cyclades (Greece) deduced from submerged notches. International Journal of Earth Sciences 103: 381-95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-013-0942-0
1970 East is a Big Bird: Navigation and Logic on Pulawat Atoll. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
2011 Debt: The First 5,000 Years. New York: Melville House.
Gustas, R., and K. Supernant
2017 Least cost path analysis of early maritime movement on the Pacific Northwest coast. Journal of Archaeological Science 78: 40-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2016.11.006
Halstead, P., and G. Jones
1989 Agrarian ecology in the Greek islands: time stress, scale, and risk. Journal of Hellenic Studies 109: 41-55. https://doi.org/10.2307/632031
2006 War and peace in societies without central power: theories and perspectives. In T. Otto, H. Thrane and H. Vandkilde (eds.), Warfare and Society: Archaeological and Social Anthropological Perspectives, 113-39. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus University Press.
2002 Painted ladies: Early Cycladic II mourning figurines. American Journal of Archaeology 106: 525-50. https://doi.org/10.2307/4126215
Horden, P., and N. Purcell
2000 The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History. Oxford: Blackwell.
Indruszewski, G., and C.M. Barton
2007 Simulating sea surfaces for modeling Viking age seafaring in the Baltic Sea. In J.T. Clark and E.M. Hagemeister (eds.), Digital Discovery: Exploring New Frontiers in Human Heritage. CAA 2006. Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Proceedings of the 34th Conference, Fargo, United States, April 2006, 616-30. Budapest: Archaeolingua.
2008 Cost surface DEM modeling of Viking Age seafaring in the Baltic Sea. In B. Frischer and A. Dakouri-Hild (eds.), Beyond Illustration: 2D and 3D Digital Technologies as Tools for Discovery in Archaeology. British Archaeological Reports, International Series 1805: 56-64. Oxford: Archaeopress.
Irwin, G., S. Bickler and P. Quirke
1990 Voyaging by canoe and computer: experiments in the settlement of the Pacific Ocean. Antiquity 64: 34-50. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00077280
2017 Small Worlds after All? Landscape and Community Interaction in the Cycladic Bronze Age. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Department of Classics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.
Knappett, C., T. Evans and R. Rivers
2008 Modeling maritime interaction in the Aegean Bronze Age. Antiquity 82: 1009-24. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X0009774X
Knappett, C., R. Rivers and T. Evans
2011 The Theran eruption and Minoan palatial collapse: new interpretations gained from modeling the maritime network. Antiquity 85: 1008-23. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00068459
2008 Regional synthesis of Mediterranean atmospheric circulation during the last glacial maximum. Science 321: 1338-40. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1157638
1996 Sea-level change and shore-line evolution in Aegean Greece since Upper Palaeolithic time. Antiquity 70: 588-611. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00083733
Lambeck, K., and D. Chappell
2001 Sea-level change through the last glacial cycle. Science 292: 679-86. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1059549
Lambeck, K., and A. Purcell
2005 Sea-level change in the Mediterranean Sea since the LGM: model predictions for tectonically stable areas. Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 1969-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.06.025
2004 The isolation metaphor in island archaeology. In S.M. Fitzpatrick (ed.), Voyages of Discovery: The Archaeology of Islands, 223-32. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.
2013 Modeling distance with time in ancient Mediterranean seafaring: a GIS application for the interpretation of maritime connectivity. Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 3302-308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2013.03.016
1972 We, the Navigators: The Ancient Art of Landfinding in the Pacific. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
2008 Some initial wobbly steps towards a Late Neolithic to Early Bronze III radiocarbon chronology for the Cyclades. In N. Brodie, J. Doole, G. Gavalas and C. Renfrew (eds.), Horizon: A Colloquium on the Prehistory of the Cyclades, 55-59. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
2017 Comments on climate, intra-regional variations, chronology, the 2200 B.C. horizon of change in the eastern Mediterranean region, and socio-political change on Crete. In F. Höflmayer (ed.), The Late Third Millennium in the Ancient Near East: Chronology, C14, and Climate Change. Oriental Institute Seminars 11: 451-90. Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
Mantzourani, E., and A. Theodorou
1989 An attempt to delineate the sea routes between Crete and Cyprus during the Bronze Age. In V. Karageorghis (ed.), The Civilizations of the Aegean and their Diffusion in Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean, 2000-600 bc. Proceedings of an International Symposium 18-24 September 1989, 38-56. Larnaca: Pierides Foundation.
1994 Anthropological invariants in travel behavior. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 47: 75-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-1625
1933 La marine créto-mycénienne. Bulletin de correspondance hellénique 57: 170-235.
2017 Landscape and wood-fuel in Akrotiri (Thera, Greece) during the Bronze Age. Quaternary International 458: 44-55. https://doi.org/10.
2001 Boats of the World from the Stone Age to Medieval Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mokhtarian, P.L., and C. Chen
2004 TTB or not TTB, that is the question: a review and analysis of the empirical literature on travel time (and money) budgets. Transportation Research Part A 38: 643-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2003.12.004
Montenegro, A., R.T. Callaghan and S.M. Fitzpatrick
2014 From west to east: environmental influences on the rate and pathways of Polynesian colonization. The Holocene 24: 242-56. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683613517402
2016 Using seafaring simulations and shortest-hop trajectories to model the prehistoric colonization of Remote Oceania. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113: 12,685-90. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1612426113
1968 Appendix I: relative sea-level change in the Saliagos area since Neolithic times. In J.D. Evans and C. Renfrew (eds.), Excavations at Saliagos near Antiparos. British School at Athens Supplementary Volume 5: 92-98. London: British School at Athens.
2001 The Role of the Physical Environment in Ancient Greek Seafaring. Mnemosyne Supplements: History and Archaeology of Classical Antiquity 213. Leiden: Brill. https://doi.org/
1987 Do modern winds equal ancient winds? Mediterranean Historical Review 2: 139-67. https://doi.org/10.1080/09518968708569525
1995 The cutting edge: a new look at early Aegean metallurgy. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 8(2): 1-32. https://doi.org/10.1558/jmea.v8i2.1
Nymo, G., C. Renfrew and J. Dixon
2013 The pebbles from Dhaskalio. In C. Renfrew, O. Philaniotou, N. Brodie, G. Gavalas and M.J. Boyd (eds.), The Settlement at Dhaskalio: The Sanctuary on Keros and the Origins of Aegean Ritual Practice: The Excavations of 2006-2008 I: 517-30. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
2008 The marine environment and its influence on seafaring and maritime routes in the prehistoric Aegean. European Journal of Archaeology 11: 199-222. https://doi.org/10.1177/
2005 A review of possible eustatic, isostatic and tectonic contributions in eight late-Holocene relative sea-level histories from the Mediterranean area. Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 1989-2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.06.026
1972 The Emergence of Civilization: The Cyclades and the Aegean in the Third Millennium bc. London: Methuen.
2010 Preface and introduction (2010). The Emergence of Civilization: The Cyclades and the Aegean in the Third Millennium bc. 2nd edn., xxvii-li. Oxford: Oxbow Books.
Renfrew, C., M.J. Boyd and C. Bronk Ramsey
2012 The oldest maritime sanctuary? Dating the sanctuary at Keros and the Cycladic Early Bronze Age. Antiquity 86: 144-60. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00062517
2013 The Settlement at Dhaskalio. The Sanctuary on Keros and the Origins of Aegean Ritual Practice: The Excavations of 2006-2008 I. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.
Renfrew, C., and M. Wagstaff (eds.)
1982 An Island Polity: The Archaeology of Exploitation in Melos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2016 War and the food quest in small-scale societies: settlement-pattern formation in contact-era New Guinea. In A.M. VanDerwarker and G.D. Wilson (eds.), The Archaeology of Food and Warfare: Food Insecurity in Prehistory, 13-40. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-18506-4_2
2011a Age, origin and climatic controls on vegetated linear dunes in the northwestern Negev desert (Israel). Quaternary Science Reviews 30: 1649-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.03.010
2011b Palaeoclimate interpretations of late Pleistocene vegetated linear dune mobilization episodes: evidence from the northwestern Negev dunefield, Israel. Quaternary Science Reviews 30: 3364-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.08.014
2000 A Catalogue of Cycladica in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford: The Captive Spirit. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2008 Aegean prehistory as world archaeology: recent trends in the archaeology of Bronze Age Greece. Journal of Archaeological Research 16: 83-161. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10814-007-9018-7
2013 Maritime Networks in the Mycenaean World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139017374
van Andel, T.H.
1989 Late Quaternary sea-level changes and archaeology. Antiquity 63: 733-45. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003598X00076869
Wagstaff, M., and J.F. Cherry
1982 Settlement and population change. In C. Renfrew and M. Wagstaff (eds.), An Island Polity: The Archaeology of Exploitation in Melos, 136-55. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2000 Towards a Hermeneutics of Aegean Bronze Age Ship Imagery. Peleus 6. Möhnesee, Germany: Bibliopolis.
White, D.A., and S.L. Surface-Evans (eds.)
2012 Least Cost Analysis of Social Landscapes: Archaeological Case Studies. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
1994 Simulating the Spread of Wildfires using a Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Graduate Program in Geography, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.
1949 Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort: An Introduction to Human Ecology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.