Item Details

Daoist Writs and Scriptures as Sacred Beings

Issue: Vol 10 No. 1-2 (2019) Special Issue: Books as Bodies and Sacred Beings

Journal: Postscripts: The Journal of Sacred Texts, Cultural Histories, and Contemporary Contexts

Subject Areas: Religious Studies Islamic Studies Biblical Studies

DOI: 10.1558/post.38025

Abstract:

The formation and solidification of canonical scriptures in Daoism facilitated the establishment and development of the religious tradition. In particular, medieval Daoism was grounded on a unique conception of writs and scriptures. The Daoist concept of scripture is founded on a belief system in which letters and sounds are particular forms of qi, or the omnipresent “pneuma and energy.” Such a way of thinking provides a lead for understanding the Daoist veneration of scriptures and other various practices. The aim of this paper is to explore the characteristics of Daoist canonical scriptures as “sacred beings,” mainly through an investigation of the Daoist perspective on scriptures, scripture-worship, and the relationship between scripture and practice.

Author: Jihyun Kim

View Original Web Page

References :

Primary sources

DZ. Work number of The Taoist Canon. 2008. Schipper, Kristofer and Franciscus Verellen, eds. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.

DZ97. Spontaneously Created Jade Characters and Esoteric Sounds of the Various Heavens (Taishang dongxuan lingbao zhutian neiyin ziran yuzi 太上洞玄靈寶諸天內音自然玉字).

DZ104. Sounds and Meanings and Jade Instructions of the Perfected Scripture of the Great Cavern of Highest Clarity (Shangqing dadong zhenjing yujue yinyi 上淸大洞眞經玉訣音義).

DZ164. Genealogy of the Three Worthies of Highest Clarity (Shangqing sanzun pulu 上淸三尊譜錄).

DZ302. Record of Mr. Zhou’s Communication with the Unseen World (Zhoushi mingtong ji 周氏冥通記).

DZ304. Records of Mount Mao (Maoshan zhi 茅山志).

DZ528. Ritual of Transmission for Numinous Treasure Scriptures (Taishang dongxuan lingbao shouduyi 太上洞玄靈寶授度儀).

DZ1016. Declarations of the Perfected (Zhengao 眞誥).

DZ1032. Cloud Bookcase with Seven Labels (Yunji qiqian 雲笈七籤) (YJQQ).

DZ1114. Scripture of Original Deeds and Destiny (Taishang dongxuan lingbao benxing suyuan jing 太上洞玄靈寶本行宿緣經).

DZ1128. Progression of Succession of Scriptures and Teachings in the Daoist School (Daomen jingfa xiangcheng cixu 道門經法相承次序).

DZ1129. Pivot of Meaning of the Daoist Teaching (Daojiao yishu 道敎義樞).

DZ1138. Essentials of Supreme Secrets (Wushang biyao 無上祕要) (WSBY).

DZ1352. Jade Book of the Great Realm of Great High of the Cavern of the Perfected (Dongzhen taishang taixiao langshu 洞眞太上太霄琅書).

DZ1360. Scripture of Secret Names of a Hundred Gods and Incantations of the Highest Thearch among the Nine Heavens in Highest Clarity (Shangqing jiutian shangdi zhu baishen neiming jing 上淸九天上帝祝百神內名經).

DZ1389. Jade Register of Eight Phosphors of the Golden Primordial of the Cavern of Perfection, the Lord of Great Dao the Most High of Highest Clarity (Shangqing gaosheng taishang dadaojun dongzhen jinyuan bajing yulu 上淸高聖太上大道君洞眞金元八景玉籙).

T. (Volume number of Taishō shinshū daizōkyō 大正新修大藏經).

T51. Records of Temples in Luoyang (Luoyang qielan ji 洛陽伽藍記).

T52. Discourse on Differentiating the Right (Bianzheng lun 辯正論).

Book of Han (Hanshu 漢書). Beijing 北京: Zhonghua shuju 中華書局.

Book of Later Han (Houhan shu 後漢書). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.

Book of Wei (Weishu 魏書). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.

Book of Sui (Suishu 隋書). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.

Old Book of Tang (Jiutang shu 舊唐書). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.

Extended Continuation of the Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government (Xu zizhi tongjian changbian 續資治通鑑長編). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.

Ge Hong 葛洪. 1985. Book of the Master Who Embraces Simplicity (Baopuzi 抱朴子) (Baopuzi neipian jiaoshi 抱朴子內篇校釋). Collated by Wang Ming 王明. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.

Secondary sources

Kamitsuka Yoshiko 淑子. 2017. “Reihōkei ni okeru keiten shinseika no ronri: genshi kyūkei no ‘kaigō dojin’ setsu o megutte 靈寶經における經典神聖化の論理元始舊經の「開劫度人」説をめぐって [The Logic of the Sanctification of Scripture in the Numinous Treasure Scriptures: On Discourse about ‘Opening Kalpas and Salvation’ in the Original Scriptures of Primordial Beginning].” In Dōkyō keiten no keisei to bukkyō 道教經典の形成と佛敎 [Formation of Daoist Scriptures and Buddhism], Nagoya daigaku shuppansha 名古屋大學出版社, 36–73 (originally published in 2005: Nagoya daigaku bungakubu kenkyū ronshū, Tetsugaku 名古屋大學文學部硏究論集.哲學 51: 71–94).

Kim, Jihyun 金志玹. 2006. “Daidō shinkei no jisshū ni okeru shintai: Unkyū shichisen shaku sanjūkyūshō kei o fumaete 《大洞眞經》の實修における身體—《雲笈七籤》釋三十九章經を踏まえて [Body in Practicing the Dadong zhenjing: Based on the Jade Commentary].” Tōhō Shūkyo 東方宗敎 107: 19–41.

Kim, Jihyun 金志玹. 2011. “Genshi to keishi: Dōkyō ni okeru atarashii shi no kannen to sono tenkai 玄師と經師 道敎における新しい師の觀念とその展開 [Master of Mystery and Master of Scripture: New Concepts of Master in Daoism and Their Development].” In Sankyō kōshō ronsō zokuhen 三敎交渉硏究論叢續編, edited by Mugitani Kunio 麥谷邦夫, 57–97. Kyoto 京都: Kyōto daigaku jinbun kagaku kenkyūjo 京都大學人文科學硏究所.

———. 2017. “Dogyo ūi chŏngjŏn hwa 敎의 正典化 [Daoist Canonization: With a Focus on Model Narratives and Ritualization].” Han’guk sasang sahak 韓國思想史學 [History of Korean Thought] 55: 205–245.

Kobayashi Masayoshi 小林正美. 2003. “Tōdai no dōkyō kyōdan to tenshi dō 唐代の道敎教團と天師道.” Tōyō no shisō to shūkyō 東洋の思想と宗敎 20: 20–49.

Kusuyama Haruki 楠山春樹. 1979. Rōshi densetsu no kenkyū 老子傳説の研究. Tokyo 東京: Sōbunsha 創文社.

Matsuura Akira 松浦章. 2007. “Kenryū jidai no Nagasaki raikō Chūgoku shōnin: Ō Jōbu, Ō Chikuri, Tei Sekijō o chūshin ni 乾隆時代の長崎來航中國商人 汪繩武·汪竹里·程赤城を中心に.” In Edo jidai tōsen ni yoru nitchū bunka kōryū 江戶時代唐船による日中文化交流, 174–218. Kyoto 京都: Shibunkaku 思文閣.

Mugitani Kunio 麥谷邦夫. 2005. “Dōkyō gisū to Nanbokuchō Zui shotō ki no dōkyō kyōrigaku 道敎義樞と南北朝隋初唐期の道敎敎理學” In Sankyō kōshō ronsō 三敎交涉論叢, 99–186. Kyoto: Kyōto daigaku jinbun kagaku kenkyūjo.

Nakajima Ryūzō 中島隆藏. 2004. Unkyū shichisen no kisoteki kenkyū 雲笈七籤の基礎的研究. Tokyo: Kenbun shuppan 研文出版.

Ōfuchi Ninji. 1979. “The Formation of the Taoist Canon.” In Holmes Welch and Anna K. Seidel, eds., Facets of Taoism: Essays in Chinese Religion, 269–287. New Haven, NJ: Yale University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0395264900092817

Pregadio, Fabrizio, ed. 2008. The Encyclopedia of Taoism. 2 Volumes. London: Routledge.

Robinet, Isabelle. 1993. Taoist Meditation: The Maoshan Tradition of Great Purity. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Schipper, Kristofer. 1985. “Taoist Ordination Ranks in the Tunhuang Manuscripts.” In Religion und Philosophie in Ostasien, edited by Kristofer Schipper, 127–148. Würzburg: Königshuasen and Neumann.

Schipper, Kristofer and Franciscus Verellen, eds. 2008. The Taoist Canon. 3 Volumes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Seidel, Anna. 1969a. La divinisation de Lao tseu dans le Taoisme des Han. Publications de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient. Volume 71. Paris: École française d’Extrême-Orient. https://doi.org/10.3406/ephe.1967.18418

Seidel, Anna. 1969b. “Image of Perfect Ruler in Early Taoist Messianism: Lao-tzu and Li Hung.” History of Religions 9. 216–247. https://doi.org/10.1086/462605

———. 1983. “Imperial Treasure and Taoist Sacraments: Taoist Roots in the Apocrypha.” In Tantric and Taoist Studies in Honour of R. A. Stein, volume 2, edited by Michel Strickmann, 291–371. Brussels: Institut Belge des Hautes Études Chinoises. https://doi.org/10.2307/601714

Wang, Chegwen. 2010. “The Revelation and Classification of Daoist Scriptures.” In John Lagerwey and Lü Pengzhi, eds., Early Chinese Religion, Part Two: The Period of Division (220–589 AD), 775–888. Leiden: Brill. https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004175853.i-1564.98

Zürcher, Erik. 1980. “Buddhist Influence on Early Taoism: A Survey of Scriptural Evidence.” T’oung Pao 66 (1/3): 84–147. https://doi.org/10.1163/156853280x00039