Item Details

An Historical Geography of Louis Goaziou and the Early Years of L’Ordre Maçonnique Mixte et International ‘Le Droit Humain’, American Federation of Human Rights: the Significance of the Industrial Monongahela Valley of Western Pennsylvania

Issue: Vol 4 No. 1 (2013) Vol. 4. No 1 - 2 (2013) : Women and Freemasonry

Journal: Journal for Research into Freemasonry and Fraternalism

Subject Areas: Religious Studies

DOI: 10.1558/jrff.v4i1.88


This paper engages the historical geography of the origins of L’Ordre Maçonnique Mixte et International ‘LE DROIT HUMAIN’ Fédération américaine (the American Federation of Human Rights hereinafter AFHR) in the United States in the early twentieth century, the first major institution of freemasonry to accept full equality of men and women, with its origins in France. There is, in addition, biographical material on three seminal figures in the origin of LE DROIT HUMAIN, Antoine Muzzarelli, Louis Goaziou, and Dr. Alida de Leeuw. The research examines Louis Goaziou, a major architect in the formation of the AFHR and a small sampling of important co-workers. Antoine Muzzarelli was the real founder of AFHR. He was an editor in France and teacher of French in America. The first nine lodges at their origins involved different immigrant ethnic groups from across East, Central, and Southern Europe.

Author: John Slifko

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