Body Image and Celebrity Worship
Issue: Vol 17 No. 2 (2014)
Journal: Implicit Religion
Subject Areas: Religious Studies
We surveyed college students to determine the relationship between body image and celebrity admiration. We administered the Celebrity Attitude Scale (CAS), the Self-Objectification Questionnaire (SOQ), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), and a slightly modified version of the (ESS,) to 279 participants from three universities and one college. We hypothesized that, as the tendency to worship celebrities increased, so would self-objectification, enjoyment of sexualization, and eating pathology. We thought that this would be particularly true for women and those whose favorite celebrity was perceived as being physically attractive. Results confirmed that men (but not women) who tend to worship celebrities are more likely to show eating disorders and enjoy being sexualized. Our modified version of the ESS has good reliability, and we showed that men are just as likely to enjoy being sexualized as women are. Further, the correlation between ESS and EAT scores was stronger for men than for women. Implications for the further study of attitudes toward celebrities and the need to include males in research on enjoyment of being sexualized were discussed.
Author: Mara Aruguetem, James Griffith, Jeanne Edman, Thomas Green, Lynn Mccutcheon
American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. 2007. “Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls.” Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from www.apa.org/pi/wpo/sexualization.html.
Calogero, R. M., S. Tantleff-Dunn and J. K. Thompson. 2011. Self-objectification in Women; Causes, Consequences and Counteractions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/12304-000
Clarke, M. G. and R. L. Palmer. 1983. “Eating Attitudes and Neurotic Symptoms in University Students.” British Journal of Psychiatry 142: 299–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.142.3.299
Frazier, P. A., A. P. Tix and K. E. Barron. 2004. “Testing Moderator and Mediator Effects in Counseling Psychology Research.” Journal of Counseling Psychology 51: 115–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0126.96.36.199
Fredrickson, B., S. Noll, T. Roberts, J. Twenge and D. Quinn. 1998. “That Swimsuit Becomes You: Sex Differences in Self-objectification, Restrained Eating, and Math Performance.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75:269–284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.529
Fredrickson, B.and T. A. Roberts. 1997. “Objectification Theory: Toward Understanding Women’s Lived Experiences and Mental Health Risks.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 21: 173–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x
Garner, D.M., M. P. Olmsted, Y. Bohr and P. E. Garfinkel. 1982. “The Eating Attitudes Test: Psychometric Features and Clinical Correlates.” Psychological Medicine 12: 871–878. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700049163
Gill, R. 2003. “From Sexual Objectification to Sexual Subjectification: The Resexualization of Women’s Bodies in the Media.” Feminist Media Studies 3: 100–106.
Greenleaf, C. and R. McGreer. 2006. “Disordered Eating Attitudes and Self-objectification among Physically Active and Sedentary Female College Students.” Journal of Psychology 140: 187–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/JRLP.140.3.187-198
Griffith, J., M. Aruguete, J. Edman, T. Green and L. McCutcheon. 2013. “The Temporal Stability of the Tendency to Worship Celebrities.” Sage Open 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2158244013494221
Liss, M., M. J. Erchull and L. R. Ramsey. 2011. “Empowering or Oppressing? Development and Exploration of the Enjoyment of Sexualization Scale.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 37: 55–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167210386119
Maltby, J., D. C. Giles, L. Barber and L. E. McCutcheon. 2005. “Intense-personal Celebrity Worship and Body Image: Evidence of a Link among Female Adolescents.” British Journal of Health Psychology 10: 17–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/135910704X15257
Maltby, J., J. Houran, R. Lange, D. Ashe and L. E. McCutcheon. 2002. “Thou Shalt Worship No Other Gods—Unless they are Celebrities: The Relationship between Celebrity Worship and Religious Orientation.” Personality and Individual Differences 32: 1157–1172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00059-9
Maltby, J., J. Houran and L. E. McCutcheon. 2003. “A Clinical Interpretation of Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with Celebrity Worship.” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 191: 25–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-200301000-00005
Maltby, J., L. E. McCutcheon, D. D. Ashe and J. Houran. 2001. “The Self-reported Psychological Well-being of Celebrity Worshipers.” North American Journal of Psychology 3: 444–452.
McCutcheon, L. E., J. Maltby, J. Houran and D. D. Ashe. 2004. Celebrity Worshippers: Inside the Minds of Stargazers. Baltimore, MD: PublishAmerica.
Miller, J. L., L. A. Schmidt, T. Vaillancourt, P. McDougall and M. Laliberte. 2006. “Neuroticism and Introversion: A Risky Combination for Disordered Eating among a Non-clinical Sample of Undergraduate Women.” Eating Behavior 7: 69–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2005.07.003
Miner-Rubino, K., J. M. Twenge and B. L. Fredrickson. 2002. “Trait Self-objectification in Women: Affective and Personality Correlates.” Journal of Research in Personality 36:147–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jrpe.2001.2343
Noll, S. E. and B. Fredrickson. 1998. “A Mediational Model Linking Self-objectification, Body Shame, and Disordered Eating.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 21: 173–206.
Nowatzki, J. and M. Morry. 2009. “Women’s Intentions Regarding, and Acceptance of, Self-sexualizing Behavior.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 33: 95–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.01477.x
Peterson, R. A. 2001. “On the Use of College Students in Social Science Research: Insights from a Second-order Meta-analysis.” Journal of Consumer Research 28: 450–461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/323732
“Race, Ethnicity, and Gender of Students at more than 1,500 Institutions.” 2012, Nov. 2. Chronicle of Higher Education 00095982 59: (10).
Schaefer, R. T. 2006. Sociology: A Brief Introduction. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.
Spettigue, W. and K. A. Henderson. 2004. “Eating Disorders and the Role of the Media.” Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review 13: 16–19.
Swami, V., R. Taylor and C. Carvalho. 2009. “Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery and Celebrity Worship: Evidence of Associations among Female Undergraduates.” Personality and Individual Differences 47: 869–872. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.07.006