Item Details

It takes research to build a community: Ongoing challenges for scholars in digitally-supported communicative language teaching

Issue: Vol 32 No. 1 (2015)

Journal: CALICO Journal

Subject Areas:

DOI: 10.1558/calico.v32i1.25664


This article provides an argument for closer multilateral alliances between the emergent and loosely-bound international community of educational researchers who are working in areas related to Digitally Supported Communicative Language Teaching and Learning (herein DSCLT). By taking advantage of the communications revolution that is currently reshaping the world, internationally aligned investigators can foster new knowledge, technology, and practices that develop improved teaching strategies and policies appropriate to our rapidly changing times. Beginning with a brief overview of the impact that technology has had on education and post-2000 nascent research areas related to DSCLT, this article goes on to examine whether or not the impact of research is geographically bound, and if so, how transnational alliances can be useful in bridging gaps in the continuum of knowledge-building. Finally, the potential gains that could stem from an enhanced collaboration between international research communities are examined, although admittedly such endeavours are not without challenges.

Author: Melinda Dooly

View Full Text

References :

Abrams, Z. (2013). Say what?! L2 sociopragmatic competence in CMC: Skill transfer and development. CALICO Journal, 30 (3), 423–445. Retrieved 12 November 2013 from

Abuseileek, A. (2013). Effects of synchronous and asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) oral conversations on English language learners’ discourse functions. Computers and Education, 62, 181–190.

Alwi, N., Adams, R., and Newton, J. (2012). Writing to learn via text chat: Task implementation and focus on form. Journal of Second Language Writing, 21 (1), 23–39.

Araújo e Sá, M., de Carlo, M., and Melo-Pfeifer, S. (2010). ‘O que diriam sobre os portugueses?’ [What would you say about Portuguese people?]: Intercultural curiosity in multilingual chat-rooms. Language and Intercultural Communication, 10 (4), 277–298.

Audras, I., and Chanier, T. (2008). Observation de la construction d’une compétence interculturelle dans des groupes exolingues en ligne. Alsic [Online Journal], 11 (1). Retrieved 15 October 2012 from

Barron, B. (2006). Interest and self-sustained learning as catalysts of development: A learning ecologies perspective. Human Development, 49 (4), 193–224.

Bax, F. (2003). CALL -past, present and future. System, 31 (1), 13–28.

Belz, J. (2002). Social dimensions of telecolaborative foreign language study. Language Learning & Technology, 6 (1), 60–81. Retrieved 9 August 2013 from

Belz, J., and Müller-Hartmann, A. (2003). Teachers as intercultural learners: Negotiating German-American telecollaboration along the institutional fault line. Modern Language Journal, 87 (1), 71–89.

Blake, C. (2009). Potential of text-based Internet chats for improving oral fluency in a second language. Modern Language Journal, 93 (2), 227–240.

Blattner, G., and Fiori, M. (2011). Virtual social network communities: an investigation of language learners’ development of sociopragmatic awareness and multiliteracy skills. CALICO Journal, 29 (1), 24–43. Retrieved 14 October 2013 from

Bouyssi, C. (2009). Using group-based videoconferencing for the development of intercultural competence in telecollaborative learning [Apprentissage télécollaboratif par vidéoconfé rence de groupe pour l’acquisition de compétences en communication interculturelle]. Cahiers de l’APLIUT, 28 (2), 63–74.

Brandl, K. (2012). Effects of required and optional exchange tasks in online language learning environments. ReCALL, 24 (1), 85–107.

Buckingham, D. (2008) Introducing identity. In D. Buckingham (Ed.) Youth, Identity, and Digital Media, 1–24. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Chang, M-M., Lin, M-C., and Tsai, M-J. (2013). A study of enhanced structured web-based discussion in a foreign language learning class. Computers and Education, 61 (1), 232–241.

Chanier, T. (2007). Commentary: Open access to research and the individual responsibility of researchers. Language Learning & Technology, 11 (2), 142–148. Retrieved 18 December 2013 from

Chanier, T., and Ciekanski, M. (2010). Utilité du partage des corpus pour l’analyse des interactions en ligne en situation d’apprentissage: Un exemple d’approche méthodologique autour d’une base de corpus d’apprentissage. Alsic [Online Journal], 13, Retrieved 21 March 2013 from

Chapelle, C. (2009). The relationship between second language acquisition theory and computer-assisted language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 93, 741–753.

Chapelle, C. (Ed.) (2012) The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Chen, C-H. E. (2006). The development of e-mail literacy. From writing to peers to writing to authority figures. Language Learning & Technology, 10 (2), 35–55.

Chen, W-C. (2012). Professional growth during cyber collaboration between pre-service and in-service teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28 (2), 218–228.

Collentine, K. (2011). Learner autonomy in a task-based 3D world and production. Language Learning and Technology, 15 (3), 50–67. Retrieved 18 September 2013 from

Cornillie, F., Clarebout, G., and Desmet, P. (2012). Between learning and playing? Exploring learners’ perceptions of corrective feedback in an immersive game for English pragmatics. ReCALL, 24 (3), 257–278.

Cornillie, F., Thorne, S. L., and Desmet, P. (2012). Digital games for language learning: From hype to insight? ReCALL Journal, 24 (3), 243–256.

de Haan, J. (2012). Wiki and digital video use in strategic interaction-based experiential EFL learning. CALICO Journal, 29 (2), 249–268. Retrieved 18 August 2013 from

Demaizière, F., and Narcy-Combes, J.-P. (2005). Méthodologie de la recherche didactique: nativisation, tâches et TIC. Alsic [Online Journal], 8 (1). Retrieved 18 September 2013 from

Demaizière, F., and Zourou, K. (2012). Médias sociaux et apprentissage des langues: (r)évolution? [Social media and language learning: (r)evolution?]. Alsic, 15 (1) (Special Issue). Retrieved 19 July 2013 from

Develotte, C., Guichon, N., and Vincent, C. (2010). The use of the webcam for teaching a foreign language in a desktop videoconferencing environment. ReCALL, 22 (3), 293–312.

Dewey, J. (1938). Logic: The theory of Inquiry. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.

Dooly, M. (2011a). Divergent perceptions of telecollaborative language learning tasks: Tasks-as-workplan vs. task-as-process. Language Learning & Technology, 15(2): 69–91.

Dooly, M. (2011b). Crossing the intercultural borders into 3rd space culture(s): Implications for teacher education in the twenty-first century. Language and Intercultural Communication, 11 (4): 319–337.

Dooly, M., and Sadler, R. (2013). Filling in the gaps: Linking theory and practice through telecollaboration in teacher education. ReCALL, 25: 4–29.

Dubreil, S. (2012). Identities, borders, change: A case study of (trans) cultural learning in mediated learning communities. International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, 3 (3), 60–80. Retrieved 5 December 2013 from

Egbert, J. (2006). Learning in context: Situating language teacher learning in CALL. In P. Hubbard, and M. Levy (Eds), Teacher Education in CALL, 167−182. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Egbert, J., Paulus, T., and Nakamichi, Y. (2002). The impact of CALL instruction on classroom computer use: A foundation for rethinking technology in teacher education. Language Learning & Technology, 6 (3), 108−126. Retrieved 8 August 2013 from

Ernest, P., Guitert Catasús, M., Hampel, R., Heiser, S., Hopkins, J., Murphy, L., and Stickler, U. (2012). Online teacher development: collaborating in a virtual learning environment. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 26 (4), 311–333.

Elola, I., and Ozkoz, A. (2010). Collaborative writing: Fostering foreign language and writing conventions development. Language Learning & Technology, 14 (3), 51–71.

García-Sánchez, S., and Rojas-Lizana, S. (2012). Bridging the language and cultural gaps: The use of blogs. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 21 (3), 361–381.

Gee, J. (2007). What Video Games Have to Teach us About Learning and Literacy (2nd edn). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Goldman, E. (2014, September). Top ten Internet law developments of 2013. Forbes Magazine Online. Retrieved 27 September 2014 from

González-Lloret, M. (2011). Conversation analysis of computer-mediated communication. CALICO Journal, 28 (2), 308–325. Retrieved 19 June 2012 from

Gruson, B. (2010). Analyse comparative d’une situation de communication orale en classe ordinaire et lors d’une séance en visioconférence. Distances et Savoirs, 8 (3), 395–423.

Gruson, B., and Barnes, F. (2012). Case study investigation of CMC with young language learners. Journal of E-Learning and Knowledge Society, 8 (3), 79–90.

Guichon, N. (2012). L’apprentissage des langues médiatisé par les technologies (ALMT) – Étude d’un domaine de recherche émergent à travers les publications de la revue Alsic. Alsic [Online Journal], 15 (3). Retrieved 25 October 2013 from

Guth, S., and Helm, F. (2012). Developing multiliteracies in ELT through telecollaboration. ELT Journal, 66 (1), 42–51.

Hampel, R., and Hauck, M. (2006). Computer-mediated language learning: Making meaning in multimodal virtual learning spaces. JALT, 2 (2), 3–18.

Hampel, R., and Pleines, C. (2013). Fostering student interaction and engagement in a virtual learning environment: An investigation into activity design and implementation. CALICO Journal, 30 (3), 342–370. Retrieved 10 December 2013 from

Helm, F. (2009). Language and culture in an online context: What can learner diaries tell us about intercultural competence? Language and Intercultural Communication, 9 (2), 91–104.

Hsu, H-C. (2012). Investigating the effects of planning on L2 text-chat performance. CALICO Journal, 29 (4), 619–638. Retrieved 19 October 2013 from

Hubbard, P. (2008). CALL and the future of language teacher education. CALICO Journal, 25 (2), 175−188. Retrieved 18 July 2013 from

Hubbard, P. (2013). Making a case for learner training in technology enhanced language learning environments. CALICO Journal, 30 (2), 163–178. Retrieved 16 December 2013 from

Hwang, W-Y., and Chen, H. (2013). Users’ familiar situational contexts facilitate the practice of EFL in elementary schools with mobile devices. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 26 (2), 101–125.

Joseph, S., and Uther, M. (2009). Mobile devices for language learning: Multimedia approaches. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 4 (1), 7–32.

Jin, L. (2013). Language development and scaffolding in a Sino-American telecollaborative project. Language Learning & Technology, 17 (2), 193–219.

Jun Tang, W. (2012). Utilisation des stratégies d’apprentissage d’une langue étrangère dans un environnement virtuel multi-utilisateurs en trois dimensions. Alsic [Online Journal], 15 (2), Retrieved 28 October 2013 from

Kearns, P. (2002). Towards the Connected Learning Society. An International Overview of Trends in Policy for Information and Communication Technology in Education. Canberra: DEST.

Kennedy, C., and Miceli, T. (2013). In piazza online: exploring the use of wikis with beginner foreign language learners. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 26 (5), 389–411.

Kern, R. (2006). Perspectives on technology in learning and teaching language. Tesol Quarterly, 40 (1), 183–210.

Kessler, G. (2013). Collaborative language learning in co-constructed participatory culture. CALICO Journal, 30 (3), 307–322. Retrieved 19 December 2013 from

Kincheloe, J. (2001). Describing the bricolage: Conceptualizing a new rigor in qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 7 (6), 679–692.

Kinginger, C., Gourves-Hayward, A., and Simpson, V. (1999). A tele-collaborative course on French-American intercultural communication. French Review, 72 (5), 853–866.

Kitade, K. (2012). An exchange structure analysis of the development of online intercultural activities. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 25 (1), 65–86.

Ko, C-J. (2012). Can synchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) help beginning-level foreign language learners speak? Computer Assisted Language Learning, 25 (3), 217–236.

Kramsch, C., and Thorne, S. (2002). Foreign language learning as a global communicative practice. In D. Block, and D. Cameron (Eds), Globalization and Language Teaching, 83–100. London: Routledge.

Kress, G. (1998). Visual and verbal modes of representation in electronically mediated communication: The potentials of new forms of text. In: I. Snyder (Ed.), Page to Screen: Taking Literacy into the Electronic Era, 53–79. London: Routledge.

Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the New Media Age. London: Routledge.

Kress, G., and van Leeuwen, T. (1996). Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. New York: Routledge.

Kress, G., and van Leeuwen, T. (2001). Multimodal Discourse: The Modes and Media of Contemporary Communication. London: Arnold.

Lamy, M.-N., and Hampel, R. (2007). Online Communication in Language Learning and Teaching. Houndmills, UK/New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lee, L. (2010). Exploring wiki-mediated collaborative writing: A case study in an elementary Spanish course. CALICO Journal, 27 (2), 260–272.

Lee, L. (2012). Engaging study abroad students in intercultural learning through blogging and ethnographic interviews . Foreign Language Annals, 45 (1), 7–21.

Liaw, M.-L., and Master, S.-L. (2010). Understanding telecollaboration through an analysis of intercultural discourse. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 23 (1), 21–40.

Liou, H.-C. (2012). The roles of Second Life in a college computer-assisted language learning (CALL) course in Taiwan, ROC. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 25 (4), 365–382.

Lund, A. (2013). Collaboration unpacked: Tasks, tools and activities. In C. Meskill (Ed.), Online Teaching and Learning: Sociocultural Perspectives. Advances in Digital Language Learning and Teaching, 77–98. London/New York: Bloomsbury Academics.

Luppicini, R. (2007). Review of computer mediated communication research for education. Instructional Science, 35 (2), 141–185.

Macaro, E., Handley, Z., and Walter, C. (2012). State-of-the-art article: A systematic review of CALL in English as a second language: Focus on primary and secondary education. Language Teaching, 45 (1), 1–43.

Mangenot, F. (2003). Tâches et coopération dans deux dispositifs universitaires de formation à distance. Alsic [Online Journal], 6 (1). Retrieved 17 April 2012 from

Mangenot, F. (2005). Seize ans de recherches en apprentissage des langues assisté par ordinateur. In Plurilinguisme et apprentissages, Mélanges Daniel Coste, 313–322. Lyon: ENS Lettres et sciences humaines.

Mangenot, F., and Tanaka, S. (2008). Les coordonnateurs comme médiateurs entre deux cultures dans les interactions en ligne: le cas d’un échange franco-japonais. Alsic [Online Journal], 11 (1). Retrieved 21 June 2012 from

Markauskaite, L. (2005). Notions of ICT literacy in Australian school education. Informatics in Education, 4 (2), 253–280. Retrieved 26 September, 2005 from

Markauskaite, L. (2006). Towards an integrated analytical framework of information and communications technology literacy: From intended to implemented and achieved dimensions. Information Research, 11 (3), Retrieved 14 February 2008 from

Maule, R.W. (1993). Infrastructure issues in Computer-Mediated Communication. The Electronic Journal of Communication / La Revue Electronic de Communication, 3 (2), s/n. Retrieved 25 September 2014 from

Meskill, C. (2013). Introduction: Sociocultural research perspectives for online teaching and learning. In C. Meskill (Ed.), Online Teaching and Learning: Sociocultural Perspectives. Advances in Digital Language Learning and Teaching, 1–17). London/New York: Bloomsbury Academics.

Miceli, T., Visocnik Murray, S., and Kennedy, C. (2010). Using an L2 blog to enhance learners’ participation and sense of community. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 23 (4), 321–341.

Mitchell, K. (2012). A social tool: Why and how ESOL students use Facebook. CALICO Journal, 29 (3), 471–493. Retrieved 21 October 2013 from

Murray, D. (2000). Changing technologies, changing literacy communities? Language Learning & Technology, 4 (2), 43–58. Retrieved 19 May 2012 from

National Research Council. (2002). Scientific Research in Education. (R. Shavelson and L. Towne, Eds.) Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Oberg, A., and Daniels, P. (2013). Analysis of the effect a student-centred mobile learning instructional method has on language acquisition. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 26 (2), 177–196.

O’Dowd, R. (2003). Understanding the ‘other side’: Intercultural learning in a Spanish-English e-mail exchange. Language Learning & Technology, 7 (2), 118–144. Retrieved 17 July 2012 from

O’Dowd, R., and Waire, P. (2009). Critical issues in telecollaborative task design. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22 (2), 173–188.

OECD. (2001). Schooling for Tomorrow. Learning to Change: ICT in Schools. Education and Skills. Paris: OECD, Center for Educational Research and Innovation.

Ollivier, C. (2012). Approche interactionnelle et didactique invisible – Deux concepts pour la conception et la mise en œuvre de tâches sur le web social. Alsic [Online Journal], 15 (1). Retrieved 17 August 2012 from

Ortega, L., and Zyzik, E. (2008). Online interactions and L2 learning: Some ethical challenges for L2 researchers. In S. Magnan (Ed.), Mediating Discourse Online, 331–355. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Peterson, M. (2012). EFL learner collaborative interaction in Second Life. ReCALL, 24 (1), 20–39.

Razagifard, P. (2013). The impact of text-based CMC on improving L2 oral fluency. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 29 (3), 270–279.

Richards, J. (2005). Communicative Language Teaching Today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Robinson, D., Herbert, S., and Crangle, R. (Eds). (2001). Encyclopaedia of the Magic Lantern. UK: The Magic Lantern Society.

Sadler, R. (2012). Virtual Worlds for Language Learning. From Theory to Practice. Bern/Wien: Peter Lang.

Sadler, R., and Dooly, M. (2013). Language learning in virtual environments: Research and practice. In M. Thomas, H. Reinders, and M. Warschauer (Eds) Contemporary Computer-Assisted Language Learning, 159-182. London and New York: Continuum.

Satar, H., and Özdener, N. (2008). The effects of synchronous CMC on speaking proficiency and anxiety: Text versus voice chat. Modern Language Journal, 92 (4), 595–613.

Sauro, S. (2009). Strategic use of modality during synchronous CMC. CALICO Journal, 27 (1), 101–107. Retrieved 8 April 2012 from

Sauro, S. (2012). L2 performance in text-chat and spoken discourse. System, 40 (3), 335–348.

Schenker, T. (2012). Intercultural competence and cultural learning through telecollaboration. CALICO Journal, 29 (3), 449–470. Retrieved 23 October 2013 from

Shin, D-S. (2006). ESL Students’ computer-mediated communication practices: Context configuration. Language Learning & Technology, 10 (3), 65–84.

Smith, B., and Sauro, S. (2009). Interruptions in chat. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 22 (3), 229–247.

Smith, B., and Schulze, M. (2013). Thirty years of the Calico Journal – replicate, replicate, replicate. CALICO Journal, 30 (1), i–iv. Retrieved 20 December 2013 from

Smith, F. (9 July 1913). The evolution of the motion picture: VI – Looking into the future with Thomas A. Edison by Frederick James Smith. The New York Dramatic Mirror, p. 24, Column 3.

Stockwell, G. (2007). Vocabulary on the move: Investigating an intelligent mobile phone-based vocabulary tutor. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 20 (4), 365–383.

Stockwell, G. (2010). Using mobile phones for vocabulary activities: Examining the effect of the platform. Language Learning & Technology, 14 (2), 95–110. Retrieved 28 July 2013 from

Stockwell, G. (2011). Online approaches to learning vocabulary: Teacher-centred or learner centred? International Journal of Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1 (1), 33–44.

Stockwell, G. (2013). Mobile-assisted language learning. In M. Thomas, H. Reinders, and M. Warschauer (Eds), Contemporary Computer-assisted Language Learning, 201–216. London and New York: Bloomsbury.

Sydorenko, T. (2010). Modality of input and vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning & Technology, 14 (2), 50–73. Retrieved 18 August 2013 from

Sykes, J., and Reinhardt, J. (2013). Language at Play: Digital Games in Second and Foreign Language Teaching and Learning. New York: Pearson.

Thorne, S. L., Black, R. W., and Sykes, J. (2009). Second language use, socialization, and learning in Internet interest communities and online games. Modern Language Journal, 93 (s1), 802–821.

Thorne, S. L., and Fischer, I. (2012). Online gaming as sociable media. ALSIC: Apprentissage des Langues et Systèmes d’Information et de Communication, 15(1). Retrieved 20 October 2014 from

Tolosa, C., East, M., and Villers, H. (2013). Online peer feedback in beginners’ writing tasks: Lessons learned. IALLT, 43 (1), 1–24.

Tudini, E. (2007). Negotiation and intercultural learning in Italian native speaker chat rooms. Modern Language Journal, 91 (iv), 577–601.

Warschauer, M. (1995a). Virtual connections: Online activities and projects for networking language learners. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.

Warschauer, M. (1995b). E-mail for English Teaching: Bringing the Internet and Computer Learning Networks into the Language Classroom. Alexandria, VA: TESOL Publications.

Warschauer, M. (Ed.) (1996). Telecollaboration in Foreign Language Learning. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center.

Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Yanguas, I. (2012). Task-based oral computer-mediated communication and L2 vocabulary acquisition. CALICO Journal, 29 (3), 507–531. Retrieved 17 June 2013 from

Zourou, K. (2012a). On the attractiveness of social media for language learning: a look at the state of the art. Alsic [Online Journal], 15 (1), Retrieved 25 October 2013 from

Zourou, K. (2012b). Towards a typology of corrective feedback moves in an asynchronous distance language learning environment. In M. Wai, N. Kwee, and M. Nagami (Eds), Media in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning, 217–242). Boston, MA: De Gruyter Mouton.

Zourou, K., and Mangenot, F. (2007). Susciter le dialogue interculturel en ligne: le rôle des tâche. LIDIL, 36, 43–68.