A micro process-product study of a CLIL lesson: linguistic modifications, content dilution and vocabulary knowledge
Issue: Vol 2 No. 1 (2018)
We begin by comparing two models for the simultaneous teaching of language and content: immersion, and content-and-language-integrated learning (CLIL). Following a brief summary and critique of research on CLIL, we describe a micro process-product laboratory experiment with young adult native speakers of Arabic for whom English was the L2. The same fifteen-minute lesson about an amateur anthropologist’s alleged discovery of a hitherto unknown indigenous tribe in the Amazonian jungle was delivered by nine surrogate teachers to nine groups of four surrogate students in three baseline English native speaker, three baseline Arabic native speaker, and three CLIL groups. Findings on language use in the nine lessons are related to content learning and vocabulary knowledge. The short-term, artificial nature of the study precludes generalizations to real CLIL programs, which was not our intention. Rather, we wish to suggest that process-product laboratory studies of larger scale and longer duration, paired with classroom studies employing a similar design and research methodology, offer a useful approach to identifying strengths and weaknesses of CLIL programs largely ignored to date.
Author: Michael H. Long, Assma Al Thowaini, Buthainah Al Thowaini, Jiyong Lee, Payman Vafaee
Basterrechea, M. and GarcÃa Mayo, P. (2013) Language-related episodes during collaborative tasks: a comparison of CLIL and EFL learners. In K. McDonough and A. Mackey (eds) Second Language Interaction in Diverse Educational Contexts 25â€“43. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd edn). Mawah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Coyle, D. (2008) CLIL â€“ a pedagogical approach from the European perspective. In N. van Dusen-Scholl and N. Hornberger (eds) Encyclopedia of Language and Education Vol. 4 97â€“110. Berlin: Springer.
Coyle, D., Hood, P. and Marsh, D. (2010). Content and Language Integrated Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cummins, J. (1998) Immersion education for the millennium: what have we learned from 30 years of research on second language immersion? In M. R. Childs and R. M. Bostwick (eds) Learning Through Two Languages: Research and Practice 34â€“47. Shizuoka: Katoh Gakuen.
Dallinger, S., Jonkmann, K., Hollm, J. and Fiege, C. (2016) The effect of content and language integrated learning on studentsâ€™ English and history competences â€“ killing two birds with one stone? Learning and Instruction 41: 23â€“31.
Dalton-Puffer, C. (2008) Outcomes and processes in CLIL: current research from Europe. In W. Delanoy and L. Volkmann (eds) Future Perspectives for English Language Teaching 139â€“57 Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
Dalton-Puffer, C., Llinares, A., Lorenzo, F. and Nikula, T. (2013) â€˜You can stand under my umbrellaâ€™: immersion, CLIL and bilingual education. A response to Cenoz, Genesee and Gorter. Applied Linguistics 35(2): 213â€“18. ;
Ellis, N. C. and Wulff, S. (2015) Usage-based approaches to SLA. In B. VanPatten and J. Williams (eds) Theories in Second Language Acquisition. An Introduction (2nd edn) 75â€“93. New York: Routledge.
Genesee, F. (1995) The Canadian second language immersion program. In O. Garcia and C. Baker (eds) Policy and Practice in Bilingual Education 118â€“33. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Hoyer, W. J. and Lincourt, A. E. (1998) Ageing and the development of learning. In M. A. Stadler and P. A. Frensch (eds) Handbook of Implicit Learning 445â€“70. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
HÃ¼ttner, J., Dalton-Puffer, C. and Smit, U. (2013) The power of beliefs: lay theories and their influence on the implementation of CLIL programmes. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 16(3): 267â€“84.
Janacsek, K., Fiser, J. and Nemeth, D. (2012) The best time to acquire new skills: age-related differences in implicit sequence learning across the human lifespan. Developmental Science 15(4): 496â€“505.
JÃ¤ppinen, A.-K. (2005) Thinking and content learning of mathematics and science as cognitional development in content and language integrated learning (CLIL): teaching through a foreign language in Finland. Language and Education 19(2): 148â€“69.
JÃ¤rvinen, H. M. (2007). Language in language and content integrated learning (CLIL). In D. Marsh and D. Wolff (eds) Diverse Contexts â€“ Converging Goals: CLIL in Europe 253â€“60. Bern: Peter Lang.
Lambert, W. E. and Tucker, G. R. (1972) Bilingual Education of Children: The St. Lambert Experiment. Newbury House.
Lasagabaster, D. and Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. (2010) CLIL in Spain: Implementation, Results, and Teacher Training. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars.
Llinares, A. and Lyster, R. (2014) The inï¬‚uence of context on patterns of corrective feedback and learner uptake: a comparison of CLIL and immersion classrooms. Language Learning Journal 42(2): 181â€“94.
Long, M. H. (1983). Linguistic and conversational adjustments to non-native speakers. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 5(2): 177â€“93.
Long, M. H. (1984). Process and product in ESL program evaluation. TESOL Quarterly 18(3): 409â€“25.
Long, M. H. (2015a). Second language acquisition and Task-Based Language Teaching. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Long, M. H. (2015b). Experimental perspectives on classroom interaction. In N. Markee (ed.) Handbook of classroom discourse and interaction 60â€“73. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Long, M. H. and Ross, S. (1993) Modifications that preserve language and content. In M. Tickoo (ed.) Simplification: Theory and Application 29â€“52. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.
Long, M. H. and Ross, S. (2009) Input elaboration: a viable alternative to â€˜authenticâ€™ and simplified texts. In K. Namai and Y. Fukada (eds) Toward the Fusion of Language, Culture and Education: From the Perspectives of International and Interdisciplinary Research. A Festschrift for Yasukata Yano 307â€“25. Tokyo: Kaitakusha.
Lorenzo, F., Casal, S. and Moore, P. (2010) The effects of content and language integrated learning in European education: key findings from the Andalusian bilingual sections evaluation project. Applied Linguistics 31(3): 418â€“42. ;
Lorenzo, F., Moore, P. and Casal, S. (2011) On complexity in bilingual research: the causes, effects, and breadth of content and language integrated learning â€“ a reply to Bruton (2011). Applied Linguistics 32(4): 450â€“5. ;
Mackay, R. (1986) The Role of English in Education in an Eastern Arctic School: An Account of Success and Failure in the Canadian Arctic. PhD dissertation, Lâ€™UniversitÃ© de MontrÃ©al.
Madrid, D. (2011) Monolingual and bilingual studentsâ€™ competence in social sciences. In D. Madrid and S. Hughes (eds) Studies in Bilingual Education 195â€“222. Bern: Peter Lang.
Marsh, D. (2002) CLIL/EMILE â€“ The European Dimension: Actions, Trends and Foresight. Potential Public Services Contract DG EAC. European Commission.
Mauranen, A. (2012). Second-order language contact: English as an academic lingua franca. In M. Filppula, J. Klemola and D. Sharma (eds) The Oxford Handbook of World Englishes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
MuÃ±oz, C. (2015) Time and timing in CLIL. In M. Juan-Garau and J. Salazar-Noguera (eds) Content-Based Learning in Multilingual Educational Environments 87â€“102. Berlin: Springer.
MuÃ±oz, C. and NavÃ©s, T. (2007) Spain. In A. Maljers, D. Marsh, and D. Wolff (eds) Windows on CLIL 160â€“5. Graz, Austria: European Centre for Modern Languages.
NavÃ©s, T. and Victori, M. (2010) CLIL in Catalonia: an overview of research studies. In D. Lasagabaster and Y. Ruiz de Zarobe (eds) CLIL in Spain: Implementation, Results and Teacher Training 30â€“54. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Nemeth, D., Janacsek, K. and Fiser, J. (2013) Age-dependent and coordinated shift in performance between implicit and explicit skill learning. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 7(147): 1â€“13. ;
Rastelli, S. (2014) Discontinuity in Second Language Acquisition. The Switch between Statistical and Grammatical Learning. Multilingual Matters.
Rebuffot, J. (1998) Aspects rÃ©cents de lâ€™immersion en franÃ§ais au Canada vers le renouvellement de la pÃ©dagogie immersive. In J. Arnau and J. Artigal (eds) Immersion Programmes: A European Perspective 685â€“92. Barcelona: Publicacions de la Universitat de Barcelona.
Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. and Lasagabaster, D. (2010) Introduction. The emergence of CLIL in Spain. An educational challenge. In D. Lasagabaster and Y. Ruiz de Zarobe (eds) CLIL in Spain: Implementation, Results and Teacher Training ixâ€“xvii. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars.
Rumlich, D. (2013) Student general English proficiency prior to CLIL: empirical evidence for substantial differences between prospective CLIL and non-CLIL students in Germany. In S. Breidbach and B. Viebrock (eds) Content and Language-Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Europe: Research Perspectives on Policy and Practice 181â€“201. Bern: Peter Lang.
Rumlich, D. (2014). Prospective CLIL and non-CLIL studentsâ€™ interest in English (classes): a quasi-experimental study on German sixth graders. In R. Breeze, C. MartÃnez Pasamar, C. Llamas SaÃz and C. Tabernero Sala (eds) Integration of Theory and Practice in CLIL. Utrecht Studies in Language and Communication 75â€“96. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi.
Slobodanka, D., Hultgren, A. K. and Jensen, C. (2015). English-Medium Instruction in European Higher Education. Series: Language and Social Life 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Swain, M. (1991). French immersion and its off-shoots: getting two for one. In B. F. Freed (ed.) Foreign Language Acquisition Research and the Classroom 91â€“103. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.