Mission Tracks in the Bush: Theological Reflections on Two Aboriginal Missions in Nineteenth-Century Australia
Issue: Vol 3 No. 1-2 (2019)
Christian missionaries played an important role in the Australian nation building that started in the nineteenth century. This essay explores the multifaceted and complex cultural encounters in the context of two aboriginal missions in Australia in the nineteenth century. More specifically, the essay explores the New Norcia mission in Western Australia in 1846-1900 and the Lutheran mission in South Australia in 1838-1853. The essay begins with an overview of the history of the two missions followed by a discussion of the key faces of the cultural encounters that occurred in the course of the missions. This is followed by theological reflections on the encounters in dialogue with contemporary theology, particularly the works of Robert Schreiter.
Author: Gemma Tulud Cruz
Amery, Rob. 2000. “The First Lutheran Missionaries in South Australia and their contribution to Kaurna language reclamation and the reconciliation movement.” Journal of Friends of Lutheran Archives 10: 32–58.
———. 2013. “Beyond Their Expectations: Teichelmann and Schürmann’s efforts to preserve the Kaurna language continue to bear fruit.” In Beyond All Expectations: The Works of Lutheran Missionaries from Dresden, Germany amongst Aborigines in South Australia, 1838-1853, edited by Kaurna Warra Pityanthi, 44–79. Adelaide: University of Adelaide Press.
Benedictine Community. 1979. The Story of New Norcia: The West Australian Benedictine Mission. Fourth Edition. New Norcia, WA: The Benedictine Community of New Norcia.
Berman, Muriel. 1984. “Bishop Salvado: A Reappraisal.” Studies in Western Australian History 8: 36–41.
Bevans, Stephen. 2002. Models of Contextual Theology. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.
Erikson, R. 1971. The Victoria Plains. Osborne Park: Lamb Paterson.
Foster, Robert. 1990. “The Aborigines Location in Adelaide: South Australia’s First “mission” to the Aborigines.” Journal of the Anthropological Society of South Australia 28(12): 11–37.
Flood, James. 1908. New Norcia: The Remarkable Aborigines Institution of the Australian Commonwealth situated in the State of Western Australia: A Monument of Benedictine Courage, Patience and Charity, The Tribute of an Irish Secular Priest. London: Burns and Oates.
Haebich, Anna. 2001. “No Man is An Island: Bishop Salvado’s Vision for Mission Work with the Aboriginal People of Western Australia.” New Norcia Studies Journal 9: 20-28.
Hallam, Sylvia. 1993. “Bishop Salvado and the Australians.” New Norcia Studies Journal 1: 31–44.
Harris, John 2013. One Blood: Two Hundred Years of Aboriginal Encounter with Christianity. Brentford Square: Concilia.
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. 1997. Bringing Them Home: National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families. Sydney: Commonwealth of Australia.
Kraft, Charles. 2005. Christianity in Culture: A Study in Dynamic Biblical Theologizing in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.
Lockwood, Christine. 2013. “Dresden Lutheran Mission Work among the Aboriginal people of South Australia 1838–1853.” In Beyond All Expectations: The Works of Lutheran Missionaries from Dresden, Germany amongst Aborigines in South Australia, 1838-1853, edited by Kaurna Warra Pityanthi, 6–43. Adelaide: University of Adelaide.
———. 2014. The Two Kingdoms: Lutheran Missionaries and the British Civilizing Mission in Early South Australia. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. School of History and Politics, University of Adelaide.
Peachey, Brian. 2001. “Salvado a Friend to Convicts.” New Norcia Studies Journal 9: 36–39.
Perez, Eugene OSB. 1970. Dom Salvado’s New Norcia: An Account of His Mission in Western Australia 1846-1900. New Norcia, WA: New Norcia.
Power, Katrina et. al. 2013. “Introduction.” In Beyond All Expectations: The Works of Lutheran Missionaries from Dresden, Germany amongst Aborigines in South Australia, 1838-1853, edited by Kaurna Warra Pityanthi, 3–5. Adelaide: University of Adelaide.
Rooney, Bernard. OSB. “New Norcia’s People: Some Complimentary Perspectives.” New Norcia Studies Journal Vol. 10: 38-48.
Rudiger, Gerhard. 2011. “The Dresden Missionaries in South Australia 1838-1846: Tracking their Trails in Archives and Museums in Germany.” Journal of Friends of Lutheran Archives 21: 25–40.
———. 2014a. “The Dresden Missionaries.” In Adventures with the Spirit: Stories of Mission in South Australia. edited by Rosemary Dewerse, 12. Black Forest, SA: Uniting Church of South Australia Historical Society.
———. 2014b. “Looking into a Mirror—Aboriginal People in Kaurna Country and Missionary Teichelmann.” Paper presented at the Australian Association for Mission Studies Conference. Tabor, Adelaide. October 2–5.
Russo, George. 1972. Bishop Salvado’s Plan to Civilize and Christianize Aborigines 1846-1900, Unpublished Masters thesis. University of Western Australia.
———. 1974. “Religion, Politics and W.A. Aborigines in the 1870s,” Twentieth Century 29: 5–19.
———. 1980. Lord Abbot of the Wilderness: The Life and Times of Bishop Salvado. Melbourne: Polding.
Sanneh, Lamin. 1989. Translating the Message: The Missionary Impact on Culture. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.
Salvado, Rosendo, OSB. 1978. The Salvado Memoirs. Edited and translated by E.J. Stormon. Perth: University of Western Australia Press.
Schreiter, Robert. 1984. “Culture, Society and Contextual Theologies.” Missiology: An International Review 12: 261–273. https://doi.org/10.1177/009182968401200301
———. 1989. “Faith and Cultures: Challenges to a World Church.” Theological Studies 50: 744–760. https://doi.org/10.1177/004056398905000406
———. 1997. The New Catholicity: Theology Between the Global and the Local. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.
———. 2006 . In Water and in Blood: A Spirituality of Solidarity and Hope. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.
———. 2003. Constructing Local Theologies. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.
Scrimgeour, Anne. 2006. “Notions of civilisation and the project to ‘civilise’ aborigines in South Australia in the 1840s.” History of Education Review 35(1): 35–46. https://doi.org/10.1108/08198691200600004
Stannage, Tom. 1984. “Bishop Salvado: A Review of the Memoirs.” Studies in Western Australian History 8: 33–35.
Walker, Mark. 2001. “Salvado and Catholic-Protestant Relationships.” New Norcia Studies Journal 9: 43–44.
Williams, Kenneth. 2000. “To what extent did Bishop Rosendo Salvado seek to preserve Aboriginal Culture in the conduct of his Mission at New Norcia.” New Norcia Studies Journal 8: 29–35.
Woolmington, Jean. 1986. “The civilisation/christianisation debate and the Australian Aborigine.” Aboriginal History 10(2): 90–98.
Zweck, Lois. 2012. ‘“For they are our Neighbors’: The Debate on Aboriginal Mission in the Kirchen-und Missions-blatt 1862.” Journal of Friends of Lutheran Archives 22: 38–61.