Aladsani, H. K. (2021). A narrative approach to university instructors’ stories about promoting student engagement during COVID-19 emergency remote teaching in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2021.1922958
Andrade, C. (2019). Multiple testing and protection against a type 1 (false positive) error using the Bonferroni and Hochberg corrections. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 41(1), 99–100. https://doi.org/10.4103/IJPSYM.IJPSYM_499_18
Arslan, G. (2021). Loneliness, college belongingness, subjective vitality, and psychological adjustment during coronavirus pandemic: Development of the College Belongingness Questionnaire. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 5(1), 17–31. https://doi.org/10.47602/jpsp.v5i1.240
Astani, M., Ready, K. J., & Duplaga, E. A. (2010). Online course experience matters: Investigating students’ perceptions of online learning. Issues in Information Systems, 10(2), 14–21.
Beyer, C. K., Brownson, S., & Evans, S. (2017). Enhancing interactivity in online classes: A framework for enhancing instructor-student, student-student, and student-content engagement. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 16(5), 53–71.
Boekaerts, M. (2016). Engagement as an inherent aspect of the learning process. Learning and Instruction, 43, 65–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.02.001
Bosch, N. (2016, July). Detecting student engagement: Human versus machine. In Proceedings of the 2016 Conference on User Modeling Adaptation and Personalization (pp. 317–320). New York: Association for Computing Machinery. https://doi.org/10.1145/2930238.2930371
Carini, R. M., Kuh, G. D., & Klein, S. P. (2006). Student engagement and student learning: Testing the linkages. Research in Higher Education, 47(1), 1–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-005-8150-9
Chen, J., & Foung, D. (2020). A motivational story in Hong Kong: Generating goals for language learners and blended learning designers from a mixed-method learning analytics approach in English for academic purposes. In M. Freiermuth & N. Zarrinabadi (Eds.), Technology and the psychology of second language learners and users (pp. 491–516). Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-34212-8_19
Chung, E., Subramaniam, G., & Dass, L. C. (2020). Online learning readiness among university students in Malaysia amidst COVID-19. Asian Journal of University Education, 16(2), 46–58. https://doi.org/10.24191/ajue.v16i2.10294
De Waard, I., & Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2019). Learners self-directing learning in Future-Learn MOOCs: A learner-centered study. In M. Scheffel, J. Broisin, V. Pammer-Schindler, A. Ioannou, & J. Schneider (Eds.), Transforming learning with meaningful technologies. (pp. 127–141). Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-29736-7_10
Dewan, M. A. A., Murshed, M., & Lin, F. (2019). Engagement detection in online learning: A review. Smart Learning Environments, 6(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-018-0080-z
Dubreil, S. (2020). Using games for language learning in the age of social distancing. Foreign Language Annals, 53(2), 250–259. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12465
Eccles, J. (2016). Engagement: Where to next? Learning and Instruction, 43, 71–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.02.003
Famularsih, S. (2020). Students’ experiences in using online learning applications due to COVID-19 in English classroom. Studies in Learning and Teaching, 1(2), 112–121. https://doi.org/10.46627/silet.v1i2.40
Ferguson, R. (2012). Learning analytics: Drivers, developments and challenges. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(5–6), 304–317. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJTEL.2012.051816
Fredericks, J., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59–109. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543074001059
Foung, D., & Chen, J. (2019). A learning analytics approach to the evaluation of an online learning package in a Hong Kong university. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 17(1), 11–24. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1215541
Gacs A., Goertler S., & Spasova S. (2020). Planned online language education versus crisis-prompted online language teaching: Lessons for the future. Foreign Language Annals, 53(2), 380–392. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12460
Hazaea, A. N., Bin-Hady, W. R. A., & Toujani, M. M. (2021). Emergency remote English language teaching in the Arab league countries: Challenges and remedies. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal, 22(1), 207–229.
Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. Educause Review, 27(1), 1–9. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/the-difference-between-emergency-remote-teaching-and-online-learning
Jia, C., Hew, K. F., Bai, S., & Huang, W. (2020). Adaptation of a conventional flipped course to an online flipped format during the Covid-19 pandemic: Student learning performance and engagement. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2020.1847220
Jo, I., & Kim, Y. (2013). Impact of learner’s time management strategies on achievement in an e-learning environment: A learning analytics approach. Journal of Educational Information and Media, 19(1), 83–107.
Johnson, D., & Palmer, C. C. (2015). Comparing student assessment and perceptions of online and face-to-face versions of an introductory linguistics course. Online Learning, 19(2). https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v19i2.449
Kahn, P., Everington, L., Kelm, K., Reid, I., & Watkins, F. (2017). Understanding student engagement in online learning environments: The role of reflexivity. Educational Technology Research and Development, 65(1), 203–218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-016-9484-z
Khlaif, Z. N., Salha, S., & Kouraichi, B. (2021). Emergency remote learning during COVID-19 crisis: Students’ engagement. Education and Information Technologies. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-021-10566-4
Khong, M. L., Chan E, Tanner, J. A., Lee, P. P. W., & Wong, G. (2020). COVID-19—a covert catalyst for pedagogical stocktake and transformation: Perspectives of a global hub. MedEdPublish, 9(1), 212. https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2020.000212.1
Kohnke, L., & Moorhouse, B. L. (2020). Facilitating synchronous online language learning through Zoom. RELC Journal. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688220937235
Kohnke, L., & Moorhouse, B. L. (2021). Adopting HyFlex in higher education in response to COVID-19: Students’ perspectives. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680513.2021.1906641
Kranzow, J., & Hyland, N. (2016). Self-directed learning: Developing readiness in graduate students. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning, 13(2), 1–14.
Kuh, G. D. (2001). Assessing what really matters to student learning inside the national survey of student engagement. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 33(3), 10–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/00091380109601795
Kuh, G. D. (2009). What student affairs professionals need to know about student engagement. Journal of College Student Development, 50(6), 683–706. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.0.0099
Kyne, S. H., & Thompson, C. D. (2020). The COVID cohort: Student transition to university in the face of a global pandemic. Journal of Chemical Education, 97(9), 3381–3385. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.0c00769
Liu, F., & Cavanaugh, C. (2011). High enrollment course success factors in virtual school: Factors influencing student academic achievement. International Journal on E-Learning, 10, 393–418.
Luan, L., Hong, J. C., Cao, M., Dong, Y., & Hou, X. (2020). Exploring the role of online EFL learners’ perceived social support in their learning engagement: A structural equation model. Interactive Learning Environments. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2020.1855211
Macfadyen, L. P., & Dawson, S. (2010). Mining LMS data to develop an “early warning system” for educators: A proof of concept. Computers & Education, 54(2), 588–599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.09.008
Martin, F., & Bolliger, D. U. (2018). Engagement matters: Student perceptions on the importance of engagement strategies in the online learning environment. Online Learning, 22(1), 205–222.
Maulan, S. B., & Ibrahim, R. (2012). The teaching and learning of English for academic purposes in blended environment. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 67, 561–570. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.361
Miller, B. W. (2015). Using reading times and eye-movements to measure cognitive engagement. Educational Psychologist, 50(1), 31–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2015.1004068
Moore, M. G. (1993). Three types of interaction. In. K. Harry, M. John & D. Keegan (Eds.), Distance education: New perspectives (pp. 19–24). London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315003429
Moser, K. M., Wei, T., & Brenner, D. (2021). Remote teaching during COVID-19: Implications from a national survey of language educators. System, 97, article 102431. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2020.102431
Muir, T., Milthorpe, N., Stone, C., Dyment, J., Freeman, E., & Hopwood, B. (2019). Chronicling engagement: Students’ experience of online learning over time. Distance Education, 40(2), 262–277. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2019.1600367
Pike, G. R., Kuh, G. D., & McCormick, A. C. (2011). An investigation of the contingent relationships between learning community participation and student engagement. Research in Higher Education, 52, 300–322. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-010-9192-1
Ramrung, M. A., Frade, N., Marais, M. F., Govender, M. T., Cupido, X., Pather, S., & Fontaine, D. (2002). Care and connection: Understanding the lived experiences during COVID-19. Higher Education Learning & Teaching Association of Southern Africa. Retrieved from http://heltasa.org.za/care-and-connection-understanding-the-lived-experiences-during-covid-19/
Rashid, T., & Asghar, H. M. (2016). Technology use, self-directed learning, student engagement and academic performance: Examining the interrelations. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 604–612. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.05.084
Rodriguez, M., Ooms, A., & Montanez, M. (2008). Students’ perceptions of online-learning quality given comfort, motivation, satisfaction, and experience. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 7(2), 105–118.
Salih, A. A., & Omar, L. I. (2021). Season of migration to remote language learning platforms: Voices from EFL university learners. International Journal of Higher Education, 10(2). https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v10n2p62
Shapley, P. (2000). On-line education to develop complex reasoning skills in organic chemistry. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 4(2), 62–73. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v4i2.1900
Shek, D. (2020). Protests in Hong Kong (2019–2020): A perspective based on quality of life and well-being. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 15, 619–635. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-020-09825-2
Song, L., & Hill, J. R. (2007). A conceptual model for understanding self-directed learning in online environments. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 6(1), 27–42.
Sun, S. Y. H. (2014). Learning perspectives on fully online language learning. Distance Education 35(1), 18–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2014.891428
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. Boston/London: Pearson.
Thomas, N. (2020). Lessons from the virtual front: Tertiary education in Hong Kong. CEA Critic, 82(3), 297–300. https://doi.org/10.1353/cea.2020.0025
Vorobel, O., & Kim, D. (2012). Language teaching at a distance: An overview of research. CALICO Journal, 29(3), 548–562. https://doi.org/10.11139/cj.29.3.548-562
Wang, C., Shannon, D. M., & Ross, M. E. (2013). Students’ characteristics, self-regulated learning, technology self-efficacy, and course outcomes in online learning. Distance Education, 34(3), 302–323. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2013.835779
Whitehill, J., Serpell, Z., Lin, Y. C., Foster, A., & Movellan, J. R. (2014). The faces of engagement: Automatic recognition of student engagement from facial expressions. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, 5(1), 86–98. https://doi.org/10.1109/TAFFC.2014.2316163
Wong, K. M., & Moorhouse, B. L. (2020). The impact of social uncertainty, protests, and COVID-19 on Hong Kong teachers. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 25(8), 649–655. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2020.1776523
You, J. W. (2016). Identifying significant indicators using LMS data to predict course achievement in online learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 29, 23–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.11.003
Yusuf, B. N., & Ahmad, J. (2020). Are we prepared enough? A case study of challenges in online learning in a private higher learning institution during the Covid-19 outbreaks. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 7(5), 205–212. https://doi.org/10.14738/assrj.75.8211
Zhang, Z., Li, Z., Liu, H., Cao, T., & Liu, S. (2020). Data-driven online learning engagement detection via facial expression and mouse behavior recognition technology. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 58(1), 63–86. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633119825575
Zuo, L., Dillman, D., & Miller Juve, A. (2020). Learning at home during COVID?19: A multi-institutional virtual learning collaboration. Medical Education, 54(7), 664–665. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.14194