Item Details

“Siempre Adistanciados” : Ideology, Equity, and Access in Peruvian Emergency Distance Education for Spanish as a Second Language

Issue: Vol 39 No. 1 (2022) Special Issue: Emergency Remote Language Teaching and Learning in Disruptive Times

Journal: CALICO Journal

Subject Areas:

DOI: 10.1558/cj.19665


Although the COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected K–12 education worldwide, Peru has faced particularly unique challenges. A combination of quarantine requirements and unequal access to remote learning technology led to the creation of a series of multimodal programs by Peru’s Ministry of Education under the umbrella title Aprendo en Casa [I Learn at Home]. Modules for preschool, primary, and secondary grades are broadcast via national television and radio networks, as well as posted on YouTube in an attempt to reach as many learners in the country as possible. In this article, we focus on Aprendo en Casa’s radio broadcasts for Spanish as a second language (SL2). Our data comprise transcribed SL2 radio broadcasts, educational materials, and interviews with primary school teachers. Findings indicate that a lack of access to technology in rural areas, even for radio broadcasts, is inscribed in historical inequities and ideologies regarding the rural population, exacerbating the so-called “digital divide” and complicating the traditionally dichotomous perspective on this divide. We highlight student and parent difficulties with access and technological know-how, as well as some of the creative ways that teachers provided access to the curriculum for students and family members, often at risk to their own health and finances. We conclude with suggestions for improving research and practice in emergency distance language education for marginalized populations.

Author: Michele Back, Virginia Zavala, Raiza Franco

View Original Web Page

References :

Ames, P. (2012). Language, culture and identity in the transition to primary school: Challenges to indigenous children’s rights to education in Peru. International Journal of Educational Development, 32(3), 454–462.

Anderson, J. (2006). Entre cero y cien: Socialización y desarrollo en la niñez temprana en el Perú [Between zero and one hundred: Socialization and development in early childhood in Peru]. Lima: Ministerio de Educación.

Ayala, S., Briseño, J., Rebolledo, V., & Rockwell, E. (2020). Historias locales frente a estrategias nacionales: La educación en tiempos de pandemia en México [Local histories in front of national strategies: Education in pandemic times in Mexico]. Educar en la diversidad, 1(June). México: Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales (CLACSO).

Bengoa, J. (2009). ¿Una segunda etapa de la emergencia indígena en América Latina? [A second stage of indigenous emergence in Latin America?] Cuadernos de Antropología Social, 29: 7–22.

Blommaert, J. (2002). The Asmara Declaration as a sociolinguistic problem: Reflections on scholarship and linguistic rights. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 5(1), 131–142.

Blommaert, J. (2005). Discourse: A critical introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bozkurt, A., & Sharma, R. C. (2020). Emergency remote teaching in a time of global crisis due to CoronaVirus pandemic. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), i–vi.

Contreras, C. (1996). Maestros, mistis y campesinos en el Perú rural del siglo XX [Teachers, mistis, and peasants in 20th century rural Peru]. Documento de Trabajo #80. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.

Cotler, J. (1978). Clases, estado y nación en el Perú [Classes, state, and nation in Peru]. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.

De Korne, H., & Leonard, W. (2017). Reclaiming languages: Contesting and decolonizing “language endangerment” from the ground up. In W. Y. Leonard & H. D. Korne (Eds.), Language documentation and description (vol. 14, pp. 5–14). London: EL Publishing.

Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and text: Linguistic and intertextual analysis within discourse analysis. Discourse & Society, 3(2), 193–217.

Flores, N., & Rosa, J. (2015). Undoing appropriateness: Raciolinguistic ideologies and language diversity in education. Harvard Educational Review, 85(2), 149–171.

García, M. E. (2004). Rethinking bilingual education in Peru: Intercultural politics, state policy and indigenous rights. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 7(5), 348–367.

García, O., & Zavala, V. (in press). Una educación lingüística crítica para profesores de español en contextos de hablantes minorizados [A critical linguistic education for Spanish teachers in contexts of minoritized speakers]. In B. Lafford, L. Sánchez-López, A. Ferreira, & E. Arnó Macià (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Spanish for Specific Purposes. Routledge.

Gibbs, G. R. (2018). Analyzing qualitative data (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.

Glaser, B. G. (2016). Open coding descriptions. Grounded Theory Review, 15(2), 108–110.

Hurd, S. (2006). Individual learner differences and distance language learning: An overview. RTVU ELT Express, 12(4), 1–26.

Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas e Informática [National Institute of Statistics and Computing] (INEI) (2017). Perú: Perfil sociodemográfico, 2017: Informe Nacional [Peru: Sociodemographic profile, 2017: National report]. Lima: INEI.

Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas e Informática [National Institute of Statistics and Computing] (INEI) (2020). Estadísticas de las tecnologías de información y comunicación en los hogares [Statistics on information and communication technologies in the home]. Technical Report No. 4, December. Lima: INEI.

Jaffe, A. (2007). Discourses of endangerment: Contexts and consequences of essentializing discourses. In A. Duchêne & M. Heller (Eds.), Discourses of endangerment: Ideology and interest in the defence of languages (pp. 57–75). London: Continuum.

Karatas, T. Ö., & Tuncer, H. (2020). Sustaining language skills development of pre-service EFL teachers despite the COVID-19 jnterruption: A case of emergency distance education. Sustainability, 12(19), 81–88.

López, L. E. (2003). ¿Dónde estamos con la enseñanza del castellano como segunda lengua en América Latina? [Where are we with the teaching of Spanish as a second language in Latin America?]. In I. Jung & L. E. López (Eds.), Abriendo la escuela. Lingüística aplicada a la enseñanza de lenguas [Opening school. Linguistics applied to language teaching] (pp. 39–71). Madrid: Morata and PROEIB ANDES.

Lo Presti, M. (2020). Second language distance learning: The issue of language certification in the time of COVID-19. European Journal of Education, 3(2), 89–102.

Lora Peralta, L., & Galán Salazar, Y. (2013). Innovación e implementación de la educación a distancia y virtual en la Universidad Señor de Sipán [Innovation and implementation of distance and virtual education at the University of Señor de Sipán]. In J. Domínguez Granda & C. Rama (Eds.), La Educación a distancia en el Perú [Distance Education in Peru] (pp. 289–312). Chimbote: Universidad Católica Los Ángeles.

Ministry of Education of Peru [MINEDU] (2015). Política nacional de enseñanza, aprendizaje y uso del idioma inglés—“Inglés, puertas al mundo” [National policy for instruction, learning and use of the English language—“English, doors to the world”]. Annex of Supreme Decree No. 012-2015. Lima: MINEDU.

Ministry of Education of Peru [MINEDU] (2020). Aprendo en Casa [I learn at home]. Lima: MINEDU.

Mueller, B., & Taj, M. (2020) In New Jersey, Tanzania, Peru, TV lessons replace online learning. New York Times, August 17.

Oliart, P. (2012). Políticas educativas y la cultura del sistema escolar en el Perú [Educational policy and the culture of school systems in Peru]. Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos and TAREA.

Orlove, B. (1993). Putting race in place: Order in colonial and postcolonial Peruvian geography. Social Research, 60(2), 301–336.

Ortega, L. (2020). Language learning in a post-COVID world. The 2020 Einar Haugen Lecture, University of Oslo, September 23.

Ozkoz, A., & Smith, B. (2020). Unprecedented times. CALICO Journal, 37(2), i–vii.

Street, B. (2001). The new literacy studies. In E. Cushman, E. R. Kintgen, B. M. Kroll, & M. Rose (Eds.), Literacy: A critical sourcebook (pp. 430–442). Boston: St. Martin’s.

Van Dijk, J. (2020). The digital divide. Cambridge, UK and Medford, MA: Polity Press.

Vich, V. (2010). El discurso sobre la sierra del Perú: La fantasia del atraso [The discourse of Peru’s highlands: The fantasy of backwardness]. Crítica y Emancipación, 2(3), 155–168.

Warschauer, M. (2003). Technology and social inclusion: Rethinking the digital divide. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Warschauer, M. (2010) Digital divide. In M. J. Bates & M. N. Maack (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences (3rded.), 1(1), 1551–1556. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Warschauer, M. (2012). A literacy approach to the digital divide. In M. A. Pereyra (Ed.), Las multialfabetizaciones en el espacio digital [Multiliteracies in the digital space]. Málaga: Ediciones Aljibe.

Zavala, V. (2018). Língua como prática social: Desconstruindo fronteiras na educação bilíngue intercultural [Language as social practice: Deconstructing boundaries in inter-cultural bilingual education]. Trabalhos em Lingüística Aplicada, 57(3): 1–26.