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Phonology in Protolanguage and Interlanguage

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Phonemic awareness and phonetic skill are the backbones of phonological theory. In phonological acquisition, the presence or lack of the former crucially determines the outcome of the latter. This inescapably becomes a common thread that interweaves developmental phonology in both childhood and adulthood. Child and adult-learner speech in the course of development constitute separate linguistic systems in their own right: they are intermediate states whose endpoint is, or ought to be, mastery of targeted speech either in a first or a second language. These intermediate states form the theme of this volume which introduces the term protolanguage (to refer to child language in development) and juxtaposes it with interlanguage (to refer to language development in adulthood).

Although major languages like English and Spanish are included, there is an emphasis in the book on under-reported languages: monolingual Hungarian and Swedish and bilingual combinations, like Greek-English and German-English. There is also a focus on under-represented studies in IL: L2 German from L1 French ; L2 English from Catalan and Portuguese; and in dialectal acquisition of Ecuadorian Spanish from Andalusian speakers.

This volume brings together different methodological approaches with a stress on both phonetic and phonological analysis. It includes both child and adult developmental perspectives, descriptive and/or theoretical results from a combination of methodological approaches (e.g. single-case, cross-sectional; spontaneous speech samples, narrative retells) and a consideration of speech acquisition in the general context of language.

The volume aims to motivate a shift in the general tendency among researchers to specialize in language subfields (L1 acquisition; L2 acquisition, bilingualism; typical/atypical language) of what is actually one common linguistic domain, i.e. the study of speech sounds (phonology/phonetics).

Published: Jan 1, 2018

Book Contributors


Section Chapter Authors
Preface Elena Babatsouli, David Ingram
Prologue Elena Babatsouli, David Ingram
Part I: Protolanguage
1. Are Speech Sound Disorders Phonological or Articulatory? A Spectrum Approach David Ingram, A. Lynn Williams, Nancy Scherer
2. Crosslinguistic Interaction in Early Bilingual Phonology: A Critical Review Margaret Kehoe
3. German-Spanish Bilinguals’ Phonological Grammars: Permeable or Resilient? Conxita Lleó
4. Acquired Singleton Fricatives and Lateral in Cluster Development: A Bilingual Child Case Elena Babatsouli
5. The Production of Selected Phonemically Short versus Long Hungarian Vowel Pairs by 5-, 6, and 7-Year Olds Ferenc Bunta, Tilda Neuberger, Judit Bona, Alexandra  Markó, Agnes Jordanidisz
6. Phonological Development and Language Proficiency of Bilingual Children who Learn Greek as a Second Language Eleni Morfidi, Eleni Samsari
Synopsis on Protolanguage Elena Babatsouli, David Ingram
Part II: Interlanguage
7. Schwa Productions in Spanish-English Bilingual Adults Kelly Millard, Mehmet Yavaş
8. Identification and Discrimination of Initial Voiceless Stops by Catalan and Portuguese Learners of English: The Role of Formal Instruction and L2 Exposure Angelica Carlet , Anabela Rato
9. The Impact of Production Complexity in German L2 by French Native Speakers: Focus on /h/ and Vowel Duration Contrast Jane Wottawa, Martine Adda-Decker, Frédéric Isel
10. The Acquisition of Second Dialect Speech: An Acoustic Examination of the Production of Ecuadorian Spanish Assibilated Rhotics by Andalusian Speakers of Spanish Esperanza Ruíz-Peña, Diego Sevilla, Yasaman Rafat
11. The Perceptual Weight of Word Stress, Quantity and Tonal Word Accent in Swedish Åsa Abelin, Bosse Thorén
Synopsis on Interlanguage Elena Babatsouli, David Ingram
End Matter
Index Elena Babatsouli, David Ingram