Book: Voice and Mirroring in L2 Pronunciation Instruction
Chapter: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Theories of Second-Language Acquisition
Chapter 2 reviews the dominance of a bottom-up approach to research on L2 pronunciation that predominated in the second half of the 20 th century. It was structuralist and oriented to segmental analysis, prioritized native-speaker accent, and minimized social factors in speaking. An early exception was instruction for International Teaching Assistants (ITAs).