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Book: Voice and Mirroring in L2 Pronunciation Instruction

Chapter: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Theories of Second-Language Acquisition

DOI: 10.1558/equinox.42466


Chapter 2 reviews the dominance of a bottom-up approach to research on L2 pronunciation that predominated in the second half of the 20 th century. It was structuralist and oriented to segmental analysis, prioritized native-speaker accent, and minimized social factors in speaking. An early exception was instruction for International Teaching Assistants (ITAs).

Chapter Contributors

  • Darren LaScotte ( - dlascotte) 'University of Minnesota'
  • Colleen Meyers ( - colleenmeyers) 'University of Minnesota'
  • Elaine Tarone ( - etarone) 'University of Minnesota'