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Book: The Five Principles of Middle Way Philosophy

Chapter: g. Individual Integration of Belief Practices

DOI: 10.1558/equinox.44198


Integration of belief is the process of making conflicting beliefs compatible by reframing. The process of reframing thought and feeling can be described as critical thinking, of which only one element is reasoning, but which also requires justification from experience, recognizing context, avoiding biases and fallacies, interpretation and credibility assessment – all of which are processes of contextualization rather than reasoning. Critical thinking skills can be practised in the context of any academic discipline, as long as the discipline does not constrain the assumptions that can be questioned (which in practice it often does). Cognitive behavioural therapy, reflection practice, and autobiography also provide further kinds of contexts where critical thinking skills can be used but should not be constrained.

Chapter Contributors

  • Robert Ellis ( - rmellis) 'Middle Way Society'