Argument structure as an interactive resource by undergraduate students
Issue: Vol 9 No. 3 (2013)
Journal: Linguistics and the Human Sciences
The present study compares high-graded essays (HGEs) with low-graded essays (LGEs) as well as essays written by international students from East-Asian countries with those written by local students in Australia in terms of their use of structures. An Australian genre-based approach within a Systemic Functional Linguistics framework was basically utilized to analyse the undergraduate students’ construction of argument structure. However, in the process of applying the existing frameworks to the given contexts, some revisions were required to analyse the delicate levels of schematic structure. Further, social approaches in writing were incorporated to stress an interpersonal perspective of genre termed interactive resources. Analysis results along with ethnographic data reveal that while not many differences between L1 and l2 writers were identified, significant structural differences were found between HGEs and LGEs. HGEs display a much more direct way of organising information than LGEs, in particular, within the discourse semantic or paragraph level of the structure. The educational and theoretical implications of using structure as an interactive resource are discussed in relation to teaching an academic argument in EAP (English for Academic Purposes) courses at university
Author: Sook Hee Lee
Al-Sharief, S. (2001) Interaction in Writing: An Analysis of the Writer-reader Relationship in Four Corpora of Medical Written Texts. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Liverpool, England.
Badger, R. and White, G. (2000) Product, process and genre: Approaches to writing in EAP. ELT Journal 54 (2): 153–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/elt/54.2.153
Bawarshi, A. S. and Reiff, M. J. (2010) Genre: An Introduction to History, Theory, Research, and Pedagogy. West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press, LLC.
Bruce, I. (2008) Academic Writing and Genre: A Systemic Analysis. New York: Continuum.
Cai, G. (1993). Beyond bad writing: Teaching English composition to Chinese ESL students. Paper presented at the College Composition and Communication Conference. San Diego, CA.
Canagarajah, A. S. (2002) Critical Academic Writing and Multilingual Students. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Casanave, C. P. (2002) Writing Games: Multicultural Case Studies of Academic Literacy Practices in Higher Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Christie, F. and Martin, J. R. (eds.) (1997) Genre and Institutions: Social Processes in the Workplace and School. London: Cassell.
Cho, J. H. (1999) A Study of Contrastive Rhetoric between East-Asian and North American Cultures as Demonstrated Through Student Expository Essays from Korea and the United States. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Bowling Green State University, OH.
Choi, Y. H. (1988) Text structure of Korean speakers’ argumentative essays in English. World J Englishes, 7 (2): 129–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1988.tb00226.x
Coffin, C. (1996) Exploring Literacy in School History. Sydney: NSW Department of School Education.
Coffin, C. (2000) History as Discourse: Construal of Time, Cause and Appraisal. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of New South Wales, Australia.
Connor, U. (1988) A contrastive study of persuasive business correspondence: American and Japanese. In S. J. Bruno (ed.) Global Implications for Business Communications: Theory, Technology and Practice, 57–72. Houston, TX: School of Business and Public Administration, University of Houston-Clear Lake.
Connor, U. (1996) Contrastive Rhetoric: Cross-Cultural Aspects of Second-Language Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139524599
Connor, U. (2001) Contrastive rhetoric redefined. In C. G. Panetta (ed.) Contrastive Rhetoric Revisited and Redefined, 218–241. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Connor, U. (2002) New directions in contrastive rhetoric. TESOL Quarterly, 36 (4): 493–510. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3588238
Connor, U. (2004) Intercultural rhetoric research: Beyond texts. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 3 (4): 291–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2004.07.003
Connor, U. and Lauer, J. (1988) Cross-cultural variation in persuasive student writing. In A. C. Perves (ed.), Writing Across Language and Cultures Issues in Contrastive Rhetoric, 138–159. New York: Sage.
Connor, U., Nagelhout, E. and Rozycki, W. V. (2008) Contrastive Rhetoric: Researching to Intercultural Rhetoric. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Drury, H. (1991) The use of systemic linguistics to describe student summaries at university level. In E. Ventola (ed.) Functional and Systemic Linguistics: Approaches and Uses, 431–463. Berlin and New York: Mouton De Gruyter.
Drury, H. (2001) Short answers in first-year undergraduate science writing. What kind of genres are they? In M. Hewings (ed.) Academic Writing in Context, 104–121. Birmingham: The University of Birmingham Press.
Eggington, W. G. (1987) Written academic discourse in Korean: Implications for effective communication. In U. Connor and R. B. Kaplan (eds), Writing Across Languages: Analysis of L2 Text, 153–168. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Flowerdew, J. (2002) Genre in the classroom: A linguistic approach. In A. Jones (ed.), Genre in the Classroom: Multiple Perspectives, 91–103. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gerot, L and Wignell, P (1994) Making Sense of Functional Grammar. Gold Coast, QLD: Antipodean Educational Enterprises.
Gerot, L. (1995) Making Sense of Text. Gold Coast, QLD: Antipodean Educational Enterprises.
Grabe, W. and Kaplan, R. B. (1996) Theory and Practice of Writing. New York: Longman.
Hinds, J. (1990) Inductive, deductive, quasi-inductive: Expository writing in Japanese, Korean, Chinese, and Thai. In U. Connor and A. M. Johns (eds) Coherence in Writing: Research and Pedagogical Perspectives, 87–110. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.
Hinds, J. (2001) Reader versus writer responsibility: A new typology. In T. Silva and P. K. Matsuda (eds) Landmark Essays on ESL Writing, 63–74. Mahwah, NJ: Hermagoras Press.
Hirose, K. (2001) Persuasive writing in L1 and L2: A look at Japanese EFL students’ rhetorical organisation strategies. JACET Bulletin, 33: 43–56.
Hirose, K. (2003) Comparing L1 and L2 organisational patterns in the argumentative writing of Japanese EFL students. Journal of Second Language Writing 12 (2): 181–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(03)00015-8
Hoey, M. (2001) Textual Interaction: An Introduction to Written Discourse Analysis. London and New York: Rouledge.
Hood, S. (2004) Appraising Research: Taking a Stance in Academic Writing. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Technology Sydney.
Hyland, K. (1997) A genre description of the argumentative essays. RELC Journal 21 (1): 66–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003368829002100105
Hyland, K. (2000) Disciplinary Discourses: Social Interactions in Academic Writing. London: Longman.
Hyland, K. (2004) Patterns of engagement: Dialogic features and L2 undergraduate writing. In L. Ravelli and R. Ellis (eds) Analysing Academic Writing: Contextualised Frameworks, 6–23. London: Continuum.
Hyland, K. (2005) Metadiscourse: Exploring Interaction in Writing. London: Continuum.
Hyland, K. (2007) Genre pedagogy: Language, literacy and L2 writing instruction: Journal of Second Language Writing 16(3): 148–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2007.07.005
Hyon, S. (1996) Genre in three traditions: Implications for ESL. TESOL Quarterly 4 (13): 693–715. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3587930
Hyon, S. (2002) Genre and ESL reading: A classroom study. In A.M Johns (ed.) Genre in the Classroom: Multiple Perspectives, 121–141. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Ivanič, R. (1994) I is for interpersonal: Discoursal construction of writer identities and the teaching of writing. Linguistics and Education 6 (1): 3–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0898-5898(94)90018-3
Johns, A. M. (ed.) (2002) Genre in the Classroom: Multiple Perspectives. Malwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Johns, A. M. (2003) Genre and ESL/EFL composition instruction. In B. Kroll (ed.) Exploring the Dynamics of Second Language Writing, 195–217. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Johns, A. M. (2011) The future of genre in L2 writing: Fundamental, but contested, instructional decisions. Journal of Second Language Writing 20 (1): 56–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2010.12.003
Kachru, Y. (2000) Culture, context, and writing, In E. Hinkel (ed.) Culture in Second Language Teaching and Learning, 75–89. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kamimura, T. and Oi, K. (1998) Argumentative strategies in American and Japanese English. World Englishes, 17 (3): 307–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-971X.00106
Kirkpatrick, A. (1997) Traditional Chinese text structures and their influence on the writing in Chinese and English of contemporary Mainland Chinese students. Journal of Second Language Writing 6 (3): 223–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(97)90013-8
Kubota, R. (1998) An investigation of L1-L2 transfer in writing among Japanese university students: Implications for contrastive rhetoric. Journal of Second Language Writing 7 (1): 69–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(98)90006-6
Kubota, R. and Lehner, A. (2004) Toward critical contrastive rhetoric. Journal of Second Language Writing, 13 (1): 7–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2004.04.003
Lee, S. H. (2006) The Use of Interpersonal Resources in Argumentative/persuasive Essays by Tertiary Students. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Sydney, Australia.
Lee, S. H. (2008a) The Use of Interpersonal Resources in Argumentative/persuasive Essays: Cross-cultural and Grade-based Differences between ESL and Australian Tertiary Students. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr Műller.
Lee, S. H. (2008b) An integrated framework for the analysis of argumentative/persuasive essays from an interpersonal perspective. Journal of Text and Talk, 28 (2): 239–270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/TEXT.2008.011
Lee, S. H. (2010a) Command strategy by balancing authority and respect by undergraduate students. Journal for English for Academic Purposes 9 (1): 61–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeap.2009.11.001
Lee, S. H. (2010b) Attribution in high-and low-graded persuasive essays by tertiary students. Journal of Functions of Language 17 (2): 181–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/fol.17.2.02lee
Lewin, B. A., Fine, J. and Young, L. (2010) Expository Discourse: A Genre-Based Approach to Social Science Research Texts. London: Continuum.
Li, X (2008) From contrastive rhetoric to intercultural rhetoric. In U. Connor, E. Nagelhout and W. V. Rozycki (eds) Contrastive Rhetoric: Researching to Intercultural Rhetoric, 11–24. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Liu, X. (2012) Contrastive Rhetoric Research of English and Chinese: An Expanded and Ecological Approach. Unpublished PhD thesis. The University of Reading, England.
Mann, W. C., and Thompson, S. A. (1988) Rhetorical structure theory: Toward a functional theory of text organization Text, 8 (3): 243–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/text.1.19188.8.131.52
Martin, J. R. (1995) Text and clause: Fractal resonance. Text, 15 (1): 5–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/text.1.19184.108.40.206
Martin, J. R. (1998) Linguistics and the consumer: The practice of theory. Linguistics and Education 9 (4): 411–448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0898-5898(97)90008-5
Martin, J. R. (1999) Modelling context: A crooked path of progress in contextual linguistics (Sydney SFL). In M. Ghadessy (ed.) Text and Context in Functional Linguistics, 25–61. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Martin, J. R. (2000) Appraising discourse: Co-constructing genres. Paper presented at Department of Linguistic, University of Sydney.
Martin, J. R. (2003) Language, register and genre. In A. Burns and C. Coffin (eds). Analysing English in a Global Context, 150–161. London: Routledge.
Martin, J. R. and Rose, D. (2008) Genre Relations: Mapping Culture. London and Oakville, CT: Equinox.
Mauranen, A. (2001) Descriptions or explanations? Some methodological issues in Contrastive Rhetoric. In M. Hewings (ed.) Academic Writing in Context, 43–54. Birmingham: The University of Birmingham Press.
Mohan, B. and Lo, W. (1985) Academic writing and Chinese students: Transfer and developmental factors. TESOL Quarterly 19 (8): 515–554. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3586276
Ostler, S. E. (2002) Contrastive rhetoric: An expanding paradigm. In J. Flowerdew (ed.) Academic Discourse, 167–181. Harlow: Pearson Education.
Paltridge, B. (2001) Genre and the Language Learning Classroom. Michigan Teacher Training.
Paltridge, B. (2002) Genre, text type and the EAP classroom. In A. Johns (ed.) Genre in the Classroom: Multiple Perspectives, 73–90. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Paltridge, B. (2004) The exegesis as a genre: An ethnographic examination. In L. Ravelli and R. Ellis (eds) Analysing Academic Writing: Contextualised Frameworks, 84–103. London: Continuum.
Panetta, C. G. (ed.) (2001) Contrastive Rhetoric Revisited and Redefined. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Pilegaard, M. and Frandsen, F. (1996) Text type. In J. Verschueren, J. O. Ostaman, J. Blommaert and C. C. Bulcaen (eds), Handbook of Pragmatics 1996, 1–13. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Ramsay, G. (2001) What are they getting at? Placement of important ideas in lengthy Chinese newstext: A contrastive analysis with Australian newstext. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, 24 (2): 17–34.
Ravelli, L. and Ellis, R. (eds) (2004) Analysing Academic Writing: Contextualised Frameworks. London: Continuum.
Schleppegrell, M. J. (2004) The Language of Schooling: A Functional Perspective. Mahwah, NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Scollon, R. (1997) Contrastive rhetoric, contrastive poetics, or perhaps something else? TESOL Quarterly 31 (2): 352–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3588051
Shi, L. (2002) How western-trained Chinese TESOL professionals publish in their home environment. TESOL Quarterly 36 (4): 625–634. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3588245
Stuart-Smith, V. (1998) Constructing an argument in psychology. In C. N. Candlin and G. A. Plum (eds) Researching Academic Literacies. Macquarie University: NCELTR. Centre for Language in Social Life.
Swales, J.M. (1990) Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Swales, J.M. (1996) Occluded genres in the academy: the case of the submission letter. In E. Ventola and A. Mauranen (eds) Academic Writing: Intercultural and Textual Issues, 45–58. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Tardy, C. (2011) The history and future of genre in second language writing. Journal of Second Language Writing 20 (1): 1–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2010.12.004
Thompson, G. (2001) Interaction in academic writing: Learning to argue with the reader. Journal of Applied Linguistics 22 (1): 58–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/22.1.58
Toulmin, S. E. (1958) The Uses of Argument. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Varghese. S. A. and Abraham, S. A. (1998) Undergraduates arguing a case. Journal of Second Language Writing 7 (3): 287–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(98)90018-2
White, P. (2000) Media objectivity and the rhetoric of news story structure. In E. Ventola (ed.), Discourse and Community: Doing Functional Linguistics, 379–397. Tűbingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.
Woodward-Kron, R. (2005) The role of genre and embedded genres in tertiary students’ writing. Prospect 20 (3), 24-41.
Write it Right (1996) Exploring Literacy in School History. Sydney: NSW Department of School Education.
Wu, S. M. (2005) Investigating Evaluative Language in Undergraduate Argumentative Essays. Unpublished PhD dissertation. National University of Singapore.
Wu, S. M. (2008) Investigating the effectiveness of arguments in undergraduate essays from an evaluation perspective. Journal of Prospect 23 (3): 59–75.