Developing concept-based instruction, pedagogical content knowledge: Implications for teacher educators and L2 instructors
Issue: Vol 4 No. 1 (2017)
Journal: Language and Sociocultural Theory
Subject Areas: Writing and Composition Linguistics
Limited studies have explored how second language (L2) instructors develop pedagogical content knowledge of concept-based instruction (CBI). To address this issue the present work described how one L2 writing instructor developed, utilized and transformed his CBI pedagogical content knowledge in one learning-to-write context. A thematic analysis of the instructor’s teaching and learning logs, teaching materials and post-intervention interviews with learners in a writing course, guided in part by Pavlenko (2007) and Haenen’s (1996) stages for implementing CBI, demonstrated that the instructor’s development was informed primarily through a process of self-reflection, diagramming and comparing notes with scholarly publications related to CBI and Vygotskian sociocultural theory. This study challenges and contributes to recent discussions about other-regulated teacher education in CBI contexts (e.g., Nauman, 2011 and van Compernolle and Henery, 2015) and reveals concerns about how instructors use didactic models to orient learners to target concepts. The findings call for more research aimed at understanding CBI-related teacher education and for detailed study manuals for L2 instructors interested in implementing CBI.
Author: Gary Fogal
Aljaafreh, A. and Lantolf, J. P. (1994). Negative feedback as regulation and second language learning in the zone of proximal development. The Modern Language Journal 78 (4), 465–483. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1994.tb02064.x
Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology 3 (2), 77–101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
Brooks, L. and Swain, M. (2009). Languaging in collaborative writing: Creation of and response to expertise. In A. Mackey and C. Polio (Eds), Multiple Perspectives on Interaction, 58–89. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Brooks, L., Swain, M., Lapkin, S., and Knouzi, I. (2010). Mediating between scientific and spontaneous concepts through languaging. Language Awareness 19 (2), 89–110. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658410903440755
Carter, R. (2010). Methodologies for stylistic analysis: Practices and pedagogies. In D. McIntyre and B. Busse (Eds), Language and Style: In Honour of Mick Short, 55–68. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Davydov, V. V. (1988). Problems of developmental teaching: The experience of theoretical and experimental psychology research. Soviet Education, 30, 6–97.
Davydov, V. V. (1990). Introduction: Lev Vygotsky and educational psychology. In L. S. Vygotsky, Educational Psychology, xxi–xxxix. Boca Ratón, FL: St Lucie Press.
Davydov, V. V. (1995). The influence of L. S. Vygotsky on education theory, research, and practice (trans. S. T. Kerr). Educational Researcher 30, 12–21. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X024003012
DeKeyser, R. M. (1998). Beyond focus on form: Cognitive perspectives on learning and practicing second language grammar. In C. J. Doughty and J. Williams (Eds), Focus on Form in Second Language Acquisition, 42–63. New York: Cambridge University Press.
DeKeyser, R. M. (2007). Introduction: Situating the concept of practice. In R. M. DeKeyser (Ed.), Practice in a Second Language: Perspectives from Applied Linguistics and Cognitive Psychology, 1–18. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667275.002
Donato, R. (1994). Collective scaffolding in second language learning. In J. P. Lantolf and G. Appel (Eds), Vygotskian Approaches to Second Language Research, 33–56. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Ferreira, M. M. (2005). A concept-based approach to writing instruction: From the abstract concept to the concrete performance (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.
Ferreira, M. and Lantolf, J. P. (2008). A concept-based approach to teaching writing through genre analysis. In J. P. Lantolf and M. E. Poehner (Eds), Sociocultural Theory and the Teaching of Second Languages, 285–320. London: Equinox.
Fogal, G. G. (2015). Pedagogical stylistics and concept-based instruction: An investigation into the development of voice in the academic writing of Japanese university students of English (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Galperin, P. I. (1969). Stages in the development of mental acts. In M. Cole and I. Maltzman (Eds), A Handbook of Contemporary Soviet Psychology, 248–273. New York: Basic Books.
Galperin, P. I. (1992). Stage-by-stage formation as a method of psychological investigation. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology 30, 60–80. https://doi.org/10.2753/RPO1061-0405300460
Haenen, J. (1996). Piotr Gal’perin: Psychologist in Vygotsky’s Footsteps. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Haenen, J. (2001). Outlining the teaching-learning process: Piotr Gal’perin’s contribution. Learning and Instruction 11, 151–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(00)00020-7
Helms-Park, R. and Stapleton, P. (2003). Questioning the importance of individualized voice in undergraduate L2 argumentative writing: An empirical study with pedagogical implications. Journal of Second Language Writing 12 (3), 245–265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jslw.2003.08.001
Hyland, K. (2005). Stance and engagement: A model of interaction in academic discourse. Discourse Studies 7 (2), 173–192. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461445605050365
Jeffery, J. (2009). Constructs of writing proficiency in US state and national writing assessments: Exploring variability. Assessing Writing 14 (1), 3–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2008.12.002
Johnson, K. E. (2009). Second Language Teacher Education: A Sociocultural Perspective. New York: Routledge.
Johnson, N. H. (2008). Genre as concept in second language academic writing pedagogy (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
Karpov, Y. V. (2003). Vygotsky’s theory of scientific concepts: Its role for contemporary education. In A. Kozulin, B. Gindis, V. S. Ageyev, and S. M. Miller (Eds), Vygotsky’s Educational Theory in Cultural Context, 81–101. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511840975.005
Kim, M. (2004). Literature discussions in adult L2 learning. Language and Education 18 (2), 145–166. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500780408666872
Lantolf, J. P. and Johnson, K. E. (2007). Extending Firth and Wagner’s (1997) ontological perspective to L2 classroom praxis and teacher education. The Modern Language Journal 91: 877–892. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00675.x
Lantolf, J. P. and Poehner, M. E. (2008). Introduction to sociocultural theory and the teaching of second languages. In J. P. Lantolf and M. E. Poehner (Eds), Sociocultural Theory and the Teaching of Second Languages, 1–32. London: Equinox.
Lantolf, J. P. and Poehner, M. E. (2014). Sociocultural Theory and the Pedagogical Imperative in L2 Education: Vygotskian Praxis and the Research/practice Divide. New York: Routledge.
Lee, H. (2012). Concept-based approach to second language teaching and learning: Cognitive linguistics-inspired instruction of English phrasal verbs (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.
Lin, H. (2010). The taming of the immeasurable: An empirical assessment of language awareness. In A. Paran and L. Sercu (Eds), Testing the Untestable in Language Education, 191–216. Toronto: Multilingual Matters.
Mackey, A. and Gass, S. M. (2005). Second Language Research: Methodology and Design. New York: Routledge.
Masuda, K., Arnett, C., and Labarca A. (Eds) (2015). Cognitive Linguistics and Sociocultural Theory. Berlin: De Gruyter. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781614514442
Matsuda, P. K. (2015). Identity in written discourse. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 35, 140–159. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190514000178
Moll, L. C. (1992). Bilingual classroom studies and community analysis: Some recent trends. Educational Researcher 21 (2), 20–24. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X021002020
Nauman, G. (2011). Synthesizing the academic and the everyday: A Chinese teacher’s developing conceptualization of literacy. In K. E. Johnson and P. R. Golombek (Eds), Research on Second Language Teacher Education: A Sociocultural Perspective on Professional Development, 102–118. New York: Routledge.
Negueruela, E. (2003). A sociocultural approach to the teaching and learning of second languages: Systemic-theoretical instruction and L2 development (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.
Negueruela, E. and Lantolf, J. P. (2005). Concept-based instruction: Teaching grammar in an intermediate-advanced Spanish L2 university classroom. CALPER Working Papers Series, No. 3. The Pennsylvania State University, Center for Advanced Language Proficiency Education and Research, University Park, PA. Retrieved from: http://calper.la.psu.edu/publication.php?page=wps3
Negueruela-Azarola, E. and Aguiló Mora, F. (2015). Motion for the other through motion for the self: The conceptual complexities of giving-directions for advanced Spanish heritage learners. In K. Masuda, C. Arnett, and A. Labarca (Eds), Cognitive Linguistics and Sociocultural Theory, 73–100. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Pavlenko, A. (2007). Autobiographic narratives as data in applied linguistics. Applied Linguistics 28, 163–188. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amm008
Prior, P. (2001). Voice in text, mind, and society: Sociohistoric accounts of discourse acquisition and use. Journal of Second Language Writing, 10 (1–2), 55–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1060-3743(00)00037-0
Robinson, P. and Ellis, N. C. (Eds) (2008). Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition. London: Routledge.
Sánchez, A. and Criado-Sánchez, R. (2010). Cognitive underpinnings of repetitive practice in the learning of EFL. In R. C. Rodriguez and M. J. P. Sanz (Eds), Ways and Modes of Human Communication, 383–389. Cuenca: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha.
Short, M. (1996). Exploring the Language of Poems, Plays and Prose. London: Pearson Education.
Swain, M. (2006). Languaging, agency and collaboration in advanced second language learning. In H. Byrnes (Ed.), Advanced Language Learning: The Contributions of Halliday and Vygotsky, 95–108. London: Continuum.
Swain, M. (2010). ‘Talking-it-through’: Languaging as a source of learning. In R. Batstone (Ed.), Sociocognitive Perspectives on Second Language Learning and Use, 112–129. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Swain, M., Kinnear, P., and Steinman, L. (2010). Sociocultural Theory in Second Language Education. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Swain, M. and Lapkin, S. (2002). Talking it through: Two French immersion learners’ response to reformulation. International Journal of Educational Research 37, 285–304. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355(03)00006-5
Swain, M., Lapkin, S., Knouzi, I., Suzuki, W., and Brooks, L. (2009). Languaging: University students learn the grammatical concept of voice in French. The Modern Language Journal 93, 5–29. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2009.00825.x
Tardy, C. (2012). Current conceptions of voice. In K. Hyland and C. S. Guinda (Eds), Stance and Voice in Written Academic Genres, 34–48. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137030825.0009
Tardy, C. M. (in press). Voice and identity. In R. M. Manchón and P. K. Matsuda (Eds), Handbook of Second and Foreign Language Writing. Berlin: De Gruyter.
van Compernolle, R. A. (2011). Developing second language sociopragmatic knowledge through concept-based instruction: A microgenetic case study. Journal of Pragmatics 43 (3), 3267–3283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2011.06.009
van Compernolle, R.A. (2012). Developing sociopragmatic capacity in a second language through concept-based instruction (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.
van Compernolle, R.A. (2014). Sociocultural Theory and L2 Instructional Pragmatics. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
van Compernolle, R. A. and Henery, A. (2015). Learning to do concept-based pragmatics instruction: Teacher development and L2 pedagogical content knowledge. Language Teaching Research 19 (3), 351–372. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168814541719
Verdonk, P. (2013). The Stylistics of Poetry: Context, Cognition, Discourse, History. London: Bloomsbury.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). The Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky. Volume 1: Problems of General Psychology, Including the Volume Thinking and Speech (R. W. Rieber and A. S. Carton, Eds). New York: Plenum.
Wertsch, J. (1991). Voices of the Mind: A Socio-cultural Approach to Mediated Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
White, B. J. (2012). A conceptual approach to the instruction of phrasal verbs. The Modern Language Journal 12, 419–438. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2012.01365.x
Widdowson, H. G. (1975). Stylistics and the Teaching of Literature. London: Longman.
Williams, L., Abraham, L. B., and Negueruela-Azarola, E. (2013). Using concept-based instruction in the L2 classroom: Perspectives from current and future language teachers. Language Teaching Research 17 (3), 363–381. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168813482950
Yañez-Prieto, M. C. (2008). On literature and the secret art of (im)possible worlds: Teaching literature through language (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.
Yañez-Prieto, M. C. (2010). Authentic instruction in literary worlds: Learning the stylistics of concept-based grammar. Language and Literature 19 (1), 59–75. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963947009356723
Zhao, C. G. (2013). Measuring authorial voice strength in L2 argumentative writing: The development and validation of an analytic rubric. Language Testing 30 (2), 201–230. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265532212456965