Item Details

An Ethical, Cultural and Historical Background for Cemetery-Based Human Skeletal Reference Collections

Issue: Vol 8 No. 1 (2021)

Journal: Journal of Contemporary Archaeology

Subject Areas: Archaeology

DOI: 10.1558/jca.43380


In historically Protestant countries, human skeletal reference collections curated by research institutions have been amassed from bodies dissected by anatomists, typically unclaimed cadavers from morgues and hospitals, or from remains donated to science. In contrast to these anatomy-based and donation-based collections, skeletal reference collections in historically Roman Catholic countries on mainland Europe and in Latin America are for the most part derived from unclaimed remains exhumed from modern cemeteries and ossuaries at the end of the mandated interment period. While much has been written in English about the history, context and ethical framework of anatomy-derived collections, cemetery-based collections have received very little critical attention. The current paper addresses this gap, with particular reference to cemetery-derived collections in Portugal. The cultural and historical context of southern Europe is discussed, particularly Roman Catholic mortuary traditions and the influence of the Napoleonic Code, and these provide the background for an overview of the ethical issues raised by cemetery-derived collections. Here, general principles that should guide the work of human osteologists working in archaeological contexts are relevant, as regards consent, dignity and respect and benefits to science and education, because unlike their anatomy-derived counterparts, cemetery-based collections include individuals who were once buried. 

Author: Hugo Cardoso

View Full Text

References :

Aguado-Henche, S., C. Clemente de Arriba and J. Carrascosa-Sánchez. 2015. "Densitometric Analysis of the Human Ulna." International Journal of Morphology 33 (3): 902-907.

Ahrndt, W., C. Deimel, M. Geißdorf, C. Lenk, S. Roeßiger, W. Rosendahl, A. Schaluschke, M. Schindlbeck, T. Schnalke, C. Thielecke, C. von Selle, A. Wesche and U. Wittwer-Backofen. 2013. Recommendations for the Care of Human Remains in Museums and Collections. Berlin: Deutscher Museumsbund. Available onoine:

Albanese, J. 2003. Identified Skeletal Reference Collections and the Study of Human Variation. PhD diss., University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada.

____. 2018. "The Grant Human Skeletal Collection and Other Contributions of J. C. B. Grant to Anatomy, Osteology, and Forensic Anthropology." In Identified Skeletal Collections: The Testing Ground of Anthropology, edited by C. Y. Henderson and F. A. Cardoso, 35-57. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Alemán, I., J. Irurita, A. R. Valencia, A. Martínez, S. Lõpez-Lázaro, J. Viciano and M. C. Botella. 2012. "Brief Communication: The Granada Osteological Collection of Identified Infants and Young Children." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 149 (4): 606-610.

Alfonso, M. P. and J. Powell. 2007. "Ethics of Flesh and Bone, or Ethics in the Practice of Paleopathology, Osteology and Bioarchaeology." In Human Remains: Guide for Museums and Academic Institutions, edited by V. Cassman, N. Odegaard and J. Powell, 5-19. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

Alves Cardoso, F. 2014a. "'Abandoned'? Exploring the Ethical Framework of Human Remains in Portuguese Identified Collections." Paper presented at the Third Annual and International Conference of the Research Programme Corpses of Mass Violence And Genocide, 8-10 September, University of Manchester.

____. 2014b. "With Who's [sic] Permission? Using Human Skeletal Tissue to Build Identified Skeletal Collections." Paper presented at Anthropology and Enlightenment, the Association of Social Anthropologists Conference 2014, Surgeons' Hall, Edinburgh, 19-22 June.

Alves Cardoso, F., S. Assis and C. Henderson. 2016. "Exploring Poverty: Skeletal Biology and Documentary Evidence in 19th-20th Century Portugal." Annals of Human Biology 43 (2): 102-106.

Amoroso, A., S. J. Garcia and H. F. V. Cardoso 2014. "Age at Death and Linear Enamel Hypoplasias: Testing the Effects of Childhood Stress and Adult Socioeconomic Circumstances in Premature Mortality." American Journal of Human Biology 26 (4): 461-468.

Anselmo, D., F. Capela e Silva and T. Fernandes. 2016. "Characterization of Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy in an Identified Skeleton from Évora, Portugal, Using Combined and Comparative Morphology and Microscopy." International Journal of Paleopathology12: 11-16.

Anson, T. J. and M. Henneberg. 2004. "A Solution for the Permanent Storage of Historical Skeletal Remains for Research Purposes: A South Australian Precedent That Keeps Scientists and the Church Community Happy." Australian Archaeology 58 (1): 15-18 https://doi/abs/10.1080/03122417.2004.11681776

Anthony, S. 2016. Materialising Modern Cemeteries: Archaeological Narratives of Assistens Cemetery, Copenhagen. Lund: MediaTryck.

A.P.D.G. 1826. Sketches of Portuguese Life, Manners, Costume, and Character: Illustrated by Twenty Coloured Plates. London: Geo. B. Whittaker.

Ariès, P. 1991. The Hour of Our Death. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bekvalac, J., L. Cowal and R. Mikulski. 2006. "Scientific Research on Archaeological Human Remains in the United Kingdom: Current Trends and Future Possibilities." In Human Remains and Museum Practice, edited by J. Lohman and K. Goodnow, 111-116. London: Berghahn Books.

Belcastro, M. G., B. Bonfiglioli, M. E. Pedrosi, M. Zuppello, V. Tanganelli and V. Mariotti. 2017. "The History and Composition of the Identified Human Skeletal Collection of the Certosa Cemetery (Bologna, Italy, 19th-20th Century)." International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 27 (5): 912-925.

Bertrand, R. 2000. "Le statut des morts dans les lieux de cultes catholiques à l'époque moderne." Rives Méditerranéennes 6: 9-19.

____. 2015. "Origines et caractéristiques du cimetière français contemporain." Insaniyat 19 (68): 107-135.

Blagojević, G. 2013. "Problems of Burial in Modern Greece: Between Customs, Law and Economy." Glasnik Etnografskog InstitutaBulletin de l'Institut Etnographique 61 (1): 43-57.

Boissavit-Camus, B. and E. Zadora-Rio. 1996. "L'organisation spatiale des cimetières paroissiaux." In Actes Du 2e Colloque ARCHEA, 49-53. Orléans: Revue archéologique du centre de la France. Online:

Bosio, L. A., S. García Guraieb, L. H. Luna and C. Aranda. 2012. "Chacarita Project: Conformation and Analysis of a Modern and Documented Human Osteological Collection from Buenos Aires City - Theoretical, Methodological and Ethical Aspects." HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology 63 (6): 481-492.

Bowron, E. L. 2003. "A New Approach to the Storage of Human Skeletal Remains." The Conservator 27 (1): 95-106

Boyle, A. 2015. "Approaches to Post-Medieval Burial in England: Past and Present." In The Archaeology of Death in Post-Medieval Europe, edited by S. Tarlow, 39-60. Warsaw: De Gruyter Open.

Brauer, J. L. 1992. "Out of the Closet: The Research Value of Human Skeletal Collections." Museum Anthropology 16 (2): 35-39.

Brzobohatá, H., V. Krajíèek, Z. Horák and J. Velemínská. 2016. "Sexual Dimorphism of the Human Tibia through Time: Insights into Shape Variation Using a Surface-Based Approach." PLoS ONE 11 (11): Art. e0166461.

Buklijas, T. 2008. "Cultures of Death and Politics of Corpse Supply: Anatomy in Vienna, 1848-1914." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 82 (3): 570-607.

Bynum, C. W. 1994. "Images of the Resurrection Body in the Theology of Late Antiquity." Catholic Historical Review 80 (2): 215-230.

Cabaço, P. G. 2009. Cemitérios Municipais de Lisboa: estratégias de articulação entre Thanatos e Polis. Master's diss., Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Portugal.

Caballo, C. P. 2005. "El Museo de Las Momias de Guanajuato ¿Momias o cadáveres? La explotación comercial del morbo tanático." Apuntes. Revista de estudios sobre patrimonio cultural 18 (1-2): 48-55.

Cardoso, H. F. V. 2005. Patterns of Growth and Development of the Human Skeleton and Dentition in Relation to Environmental Quality. PhD diss., McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

____. 2006. "Brief Communication: The Collection of Identified Human Skeletons Housed at the Bocage Museum (National Museum of Natural History), Lisbon, Portugal." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 129 (2): 173-176.

____. 2014. "O passado, presente e futuro como ilusão persistente: a antropologia biológia no Museu Nacional de História Natural." In Professor Carlos Almaça (1934-2010) - Estado da arte em áreas científicas do seu interesse, edited by M. J. Alves, A. Cartaxana, A. M. Correia and L. F. Lopes, 303-328. Lisboa: Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência.

____. and S. Garcia. 2009. "The Not-so-Dark Ages: Ecology for Human Growth in Medieval and Early Twentieth Century Portugal as Inferred from Skeletal Growth Profiles." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 138 (2): 136-147.

Cardoso, H. F. V. and L. Marinho. 2016. "Lost and Then Found: The Mendes Correia Collection of Identified Human Skeletons Curated at the University of Porto, Portugal." Antropologia Portuguesa 32-33: 29-46.

Cardoso, L. M., I. Morais Caldas, K. Puentes, M. Andrade, A. Toso, S. Assis and T. Magalhães. 2020. "Historical, Demographic, Curatorial and Legal Aspects of the Bonemedleg Human Skeletal Reference Collection (Porto, Portugal)." Anthropologischer Anzeiger 77 (1): 57-73.

Carrara, N., C. Scaggion and E. Holland. 2018. "The Tedeschi Collection: A Collection of Documented and Undocumented Human Skeletal Remains at the Museum of Anthropology, Padua University (Italy)." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 166 (4): 930-933.

Case, D. T. and J. Heilman. 2005. "Pedal Symphalangism in Modern American and Japanese Skeletons." HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology 55 (3): 251-262.

Cassman, V., N. Odegaard and J. Powell. 2007. Human Remains: Guide for Museums and Academic Institutions. Toronto: AltaMira Press.

Catroga, F. 1999. O céu da memória: cemitério romântico e culto cívico dos mortos em Portugal 1756-1911. Lisbon: Minerva.

Cattaneo, C., D. Mazzarelli, A. Cappella, E. Castoldi, M. Mattia, P. Poppa, D. de Angelis, A. Vitello and L. Biehler-Gomez. 2018. "A Modern Documented Italian Identified Skeletal Collection of 2127 Skeletons: The CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection." Forensic Science International 287: 219.e1-219.e5.

Chantre, E. 1886. "Les laboratoires et les collections anthropologiques publiques de l'Italie en 1886." Bulletin de la Société d'Anthropologie de Lyon 5: 163-166.

Chi-Keb, J. R., V. M. Albertos-González, A. Ortega-Muñoz and V. G. Tiesler. 2013. "A New Reference Collection of Documented Human Skeletons from Mérida, Yucatan, Mexico." HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology 64 (5): 366-376.

Christensen, A. M. 2006. "Moral Considerations in Body Donation for Scientific Research: A Unique Look at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility." Bioethics 20 (3): 136-145.

Chroustovský, L. and E. Průchová. 2011. "Classification of Post-Medieval Secondary Mortuary Practices and Disturbances." Interdisciplinaria Archaeologica - Natural Sciences in Archaeology 2 (1): 55-62.

Claes, T. and V. Deblon. 2018. "When Nothing Remains: Anatomical Collections, the Ethics of Stewardship and the Meanings of Absence." Journal of the History of Collections 30 (2): 351-362.

Colvin, H. 1991. Architecture and the Afterlife. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Colwell, C. and S. E. Nash. 2015. "Repatriating Human Remains in the Absence of Consent." SAA Archaeological Record 15 (1): 14-16.

Conselho National de Ética para a Ciências da Vida. 2015. Pedido de doação de ossadas e trasladação destas para o Canadá. 85/CNECV/2015. Lisboa: Conselho Nacional de Ética para as Ciências da Vida. Online: 85CNECV2015.pdf

Correia, A. A. M. 1917. "Osteometria Portuguesa." Annaes scientificos da Academia Polytechnica Do Porto 12: 225-226.

Cunha, A. J. 1926. Notas de camptometria nos crânios Portugueses. Porto: Tipografia Progresso.

Cunha, E., T. T. Lopez-Capp, R. Inojosa, S. R. Marques, L. O.C. Moraes, E. Liberti, C. E. P. Machado et al. 2018. "The Brazilian Identified Human Osteological Collections." Forensic Science International 289: 449.e1-449.e6.

Cunha, E. and S. Wasterlain. 2007. "The Coimbra Identified Osteological Collections." In Skeletal Series and Their Socio-Economic Context, edited by G. Grupe and J. Peters, 23-33. Rahden, Germany: Verlag Marie Leidorf.

Curvers, J. 2010. Burial Rituals and the Reformations in Early Modern Europe: A Comparative Study. Master's diss., Utrecht University, Netherlands.

Davis, J. B. 1867. Thesaurus Craniorum: Catalogue of the Skulls of the Various Races of Man, in the Collection of Joseph Barnard Davis. London: Printed for the Subscribers.

Dayal, M. R., A. D. T. Kegley, G. Štrkalj, M. A. Bidmos and K. L. Kuykendall. 2009. "The History and Composition of the Raymond A. Dart Collection of Human Skeletons at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 140 (2): 324-335.

De La Cova, C. 2011. "Race, Health, and Disease in 19th-Century-Born Males." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 144 (4): 526-537.

Dexeus, A. 2015. "The Bones of Our Ancestors. The End of Burials in Churches in the Late 18th Century." Contributions to Science 11: 85-94.

Di Vella, G., C. P. Campobasso, M. Dragone and F. Introna. 1994. "Skeletal Sex Determination by Scapular Measurements." Bollettino della Società Italiana Di Biologia Sperimentale 70 (12): 299-305.

Dias, N. 1989. "Séries de crânes et armée de squelettes : les collections anthropolgiques en France dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle" Bulletins et mémoires de La Société d'anthropologie de Paris (new series) 1 (3-4): 203-230.

____. 2012. "Nineteenth-Century French Collections of Skulls and the Cult of Bones." Nuncius 27 (2): 330-347.

Dubisch, J. 1989. "Death and Social Change in Greece." Anthropological Quarterly 62 (4): 189-200.

Duckworth, W. L. H. 1899. Notes on the Anthropological Collection in the Museum of Human Anatomy at Cambridge. Cambridge: Foister and Jagg.

Edgar, H. J. H. and A. L. M. Rautman. 2014. "Contemporary Museum Policies and the Ethics of Accepting Human Remains." Curator: The Museum Journal 57 (2): 237-247.

Eliopoulos, C., A. Lagia and S. Manolis. 2007. "A Modern, Documented Human Skeletal Collection from Greece." HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology 57 (3): 221-228.

Eliopoulos, C., K. Moraitis, F. Reyes, C. Spiliopoulou and S. Manolis. 2011. "Guidelines for the Recognition of Cemetery Remains in Greece." American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology 32 (2): 153-156.

Escoval, I. I. S. 2016. Análise métrica do dimorfismo sexual da escápula na população portuguesa: um novo método de diagnose sexual. Master's diss., Universidade de Evora, Portugal.

Facchini, F., V. Mariotti, B. Bonfiglioni and M. G. Belcastro. 2006. "Les collections ostéologiques et ostéoarchéologiques du Musée d'Anthropologie de l'Université de Bologne (Italie)." In Les collections ostéologiques humaines: gestion, valorisation et perspectives, edited by Y. Ardagna, B. Bizot, B. Boëtsch and X. Delestre, 67-70. Bulletin Archéologique de Provence Supplément 4. Aix-en-Provence: Association. Provence Archéologie.

Ferreira, M. T., R. Vicente, D. Navega, D. Gonçalves, F. Curate and E. Cunha. 2014. "A New Forensic Collection Housed at the University of Coimbra, Portugal: The 21st Century Identified Skeletal Collection." Forensic Science International 245: 202e1-202e5.

Ferreira, T. 1880. Os Cemitérios em Lisboa. Parecer apresentado à Câmara Municipal de Lisboa. Lisboa: Typ. Portugueza.

Figueiredo, F. A. 2006. A morte na Região de Lisboa nos princípios do século XX. Lisboa: Edições Arrábida.

Fornaciari, A., V. Giuffra and P. Francesco. 2010. "Secondary Burial and Mummification Practices in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies." Mortality 15 (3): 223-249.

Francis, D., L. Kellaher and G. Neophytou. 2000. "Sustaining Cemeteries: The User Perspective." Mortality 5 (1): 34-52.

Gade, D. W. 2015. "Cemeteries as a Template of Religion, Non-Religion and Culture." In The Changing World Religion Map: Sacred Places, Identities, Practices and Politics, edited by S. D. Brunn, 623-647. Dordrecht: Springer.

García-Mancuso, R. 2014. "Congruencia entre edad esquelética y desarrollo dentario en una muestra osteológica con edad cronológica documentada." Revista Argentina de antropología biológica 16 (2): 103-109.

Garrido-Varas, C., T. Thompson and A. Campbell. 2014. "Parámetros métricos para la determinación de sexo en restos esqueletales chilenos modernos." Chungara 46 (2): 285-293.

Giménez-Roldán, S. 2016. "Paul Broca's Search for Basque Skulls: The Full Story." Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 25 (4): 371-385.

Ginter, J. K. 2008. "Origins of the Odd Fellows Skeletal Collection: Exploring Links to Early Medical Training." Ontario Archaeology 85-88: 187-204.

Giraudi, R., F. Fissore and G. Giacobini. 1984. "The Collection of Human Skulls and Postcranial Skeletons at the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Torino (Italy)." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 65 (2): 105-107.

Go, M. C., A. B. Lee, J. A. D. Santos, N. M. C. Vesagas and R. Crozier. 2017. "A Newly Assembled Human Skeletal Reference Collection of Modern and Identified Filipinos." Forensic Science International 271: 128.e1-128.e5.

Goldstein, L. and K. Kintigh. 1990. "Ethics and the Reburial Controversy." American Antiquity 55 (3): 585-591.

Gómez-Valdés, J. A., M. Quinto-Sánchez, A. Menéndez Garmendia, J. Veleminska, G. Sánchez-Mejorada and J. Bruzek. 2012. "Comparison of Methods to Determine Sex by Evaluating the Greater Sciatic Notch: Visual, Angular and Geometric Morphometrics." Forensic Science International 221 (1-3): 156e1-156e7.

Gonçalves, D. 2013. "Ossadas assadas: bioantropologizando o dimorfismo sexual em esqueletos cremados." Paper presented at Jornadas "A investigação em biologia na FCUL", Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, 23 April.

Gonçalves, D., J. d'Oliveira Coelho, A. Amarante, C. Makhoul, I. Oliveira-Santos, D. Navega and E. Cunha. 2018. "Dead Weight: Validation of Mass Regression Equations on Experimentally Burned Skeletal Remains to Assess Skeleton Completeness." Science and Justice 58 (1): 2-6.

Goody, J. and C. Poppi. 1994. "Flowers and Bones: Approaches to the Dead in Anglo-American and Italian Cemeteries." Comparative Studies in Society and History 36 (1): 146-175.

Guyomarc'h, P., J. Velemínská, P. Sedlak, M. Dobisíková, I. Švenkrtová and J. Brůžek. 2016. "Impact of Secular Trends on Sex Assessment Evaluated through Femoral Dimensions of the Czech Population." Forensic Science International 262: 284e1-284e6.

Halliday, J. L. 2019. Multidimensions of Poverty: An Analysis of the Differential Effects of Racism and Poverty on Skeletal Growth. Master's diss., University of Windsor, Canada.

Harvey, T. 2006. "Sacred Spaces, Common Places: The Cemetery in the Contemporary American City." Geographical Review 96 (2): 295-312.

Heessels, M. and E. Venbrux. 2009. "Secondary Burial in the Netherlands: Rights, Rites and Motivations." Mortality 14 (2): 119-132.

Hitchcock, R. 2002. "Repatriation, Indigenous Peoples, and Development Lessons from Africa, North America, and Australia." Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies 16 (1): 57-66.

Holland, E. 2013. Bringing Childhood Health into Focus. Incorporating Survivors into Standard Methods of Investigation. PhD diss., University of Toronto, Canada.

Holland, T. D. 2015. "'Since I Must Please Those below': Human Skeletal Remains Research and the Law." American Journal of Law and Medicine 41 (4): 617-655.

Holmes, B. 1896. The London Burial Grounds: Notes on Their History from the Earliest Times to the Present Day. New York: Macmillan.

Horn, Z. A. 2006. Cemeteries and the Control of Bodies. Master's diss., University of Waterloo, Canada.

Hulkower, R. 2016. "From Sacrilege to Privilege: The Tale of Body Procurement for Anatomical Dissection in the United States." Einstein Journal of Biology and Medicine 27 (1): 23-26.

Hunt, D. R. and J. Albanese. 2005. "History and Demographic Composition of the Robert J. Terry Anatomical Collection." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 127 (4): 406-417.

ICOM 2013a. "International Council of Museums Code of Ethics for Museums." Paris: ICOM. Online:

____. 2013b. "International Council of Museums Code of Ethics for Natural History Museums." Rio de Janeiro: ICOM. Online:

Ion, A. 2011. "A Brief Overview of 'Francisc J. Rainer' Human Osteological Collection." Annuaire Roumain d'Anthropologie 48 (1): 24-32.

____. 2016. "The Body of the Martyr: Between an Archival Exercise and the Recovery of His Suffering. The Need for a Recovery of Humanity in Osteoarchaeology." Archaeological Dialogues 23 (2): 158-174.

Ives, R. and L. Humphrey. 2017. "Patterns of Long Bone Growth in a Mid-19th Century Documented Sample of the Urban Poor from Bethnal Green, London, UK." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 163 (1): 173-186.

Joyce, R. 2002. "Academic Freedom, Stewardship and Cultural Heritage: Weighing the Interests of Stakeholders in Crafting Repatriation Approaches." In The Dead and their Possessions: Repatriation in Principle, Policy and Practice, edited by C. Fforde, J. Hubert and P. Turnbull, 99-107. New York: Routledge.

Kenzler, H. 2015. "Religion, Status and Taboo: Changing Funeral Rites in Catholic and Protestant Germany." In The Archaeology of Death in Post-Medieval Europe, edited by S. Tarlow, 148-169. Warsaw: De Gruyter Open.

Kern, K. F. 2006. "T. Wingate Todd: Pioneer of Modern American Physical Anthropology." Kirtlandia: The Cleveland Museum of Natural History 55: 1-42.

Kerner, J. 2018. Manipulations post-mortem du corps humain: implications archéologiques et anthropologiques. Leiden: SideStone Press.

Klesert, A. L. and S. Powell. 1993. "A Perspective on Ethics and the Reburial Controversy." American Antiquity 58 (2): 348-354.

Komar, D. A. and C. Grivas. 2008. "Manufactured Populations: What Do Contemporary Reference Skeletal Collections Represent? A Comparative Study Using the Maxwell Museum Documented Collection." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137 (2): 224-233.

Kranioti, E. F., M. Y. Işcan and M. Michalodimitrakis. 2008. "Craniometric Analysis of the Modern Cretan Population." Forensic Science International 180 (2-3): 110.e1-110.e5.

Kranioti, E. F., D. Nathena and M. Michalodimitrakis. 2011. "Sex Estimation of the Cretan Humerus: A Digital Radiometric Study." International Journal of Legal Medicine 125: 659-667.

Kselman, T. 1993. Death and the Afterlife in Modern France. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

L'Abbé, E. N., M. Loots and J. H. Meiring. 2005. "The Pretoria Bone Collection: A Modern South African Skeletal Sample." HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology 56 (2): 197-205.

Lambert, P. M. and P. L. Walker. 2018. "Bioarchaeological Ethics: Perspectives on the Use and Value of Human Remains in Scientific Research." In Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton (3rd edition), edited by M. A. Katzenberg and A. L. Grauer, 1-42. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

Lemp, C., M. Rodríguez, R. Retamal and E. Aspillaga. 2008. "Arqueología del depósito: manejo integral de las colecciones bioantropológicas en el Departamento de Antropología de La Universidad de Chile." Conserva 12: 69-96.

Lopreno, G. P. 2006. "Les collections ostéologiques humaines du Département d'anthropologie et d'écologie de l'Université de Genève." In Les collections ostéologiques humaines: gestion, valorisation et perspectives, edited by Y. Ardagna, B. Bizot, B. Boëtsch and X. Delestre, 85-90. Bulletin Archéologique de Provence Supplément 4. Aix-en-Provence: Association. Provence Archéologie.

Lubell, D. and M. Jackes. 1997. "Portugal." In History of Physical Anthropology: An Encyclopedia, Volume 2, edited by F. Spencer, 834-837. New York: Garland.

MacCord, K. 2009. Human Skeletal Growth: Observations from Analyses of Three Skeletal Populations. Batchelor's diss., University of Pittsburgh, PA.

Macedo, F. F. 1882. Varios ensinamentos e methodo scientifico natural. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional.

Majastre, J.-O. 1977. "L'espace des morts et le monde des vivants." Revue régionale d'ethnologie 5: 247-269.

Makhoul, C., J. Coelho, M. Gouveia, I. Santos, A. Vassalo, M. T. Ferreira, E. Cunha and D. Gonçalves. 2015. "The Protocol for the Preparation of Burned Identified Skeletons of the CEI/XXI Collection." Poster presented at II BioAnthropological Meeting: Life, Death and In Between, 29-30 May, University of Coimbra, Portugal. Online:

Mann, R. 2013. "Our Bones: The Need for Diverse Human Skeletal Collections." Anthropology 1 (2): 1-3.

____. and P. Tuamsuk. 2016. "Stafne's Defects in a Sample of Adult Thai Mandibles in the Khon Kaen University Osteology Collection, Thailand." International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 26 (5): 906-911.

Márquez-Grant, N. and L. Fibiger, eds. 2011. The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Remains and Legislation: An International Guide to Laws and Practice in the Excavation and Treatment of Archaeological Human Remains. London: Routledge.

Martinez, H. M. 2013. I Don't Need It, You Can Have It: Motivations for Whole Body Donation. Master's diss., Texas State University.

Massa, E. R. 2006. "Project d'étude sur les archives biologiques: les collections ostéologiques du Musée d'Anthropologie de Turin." In Les collections ostéologiques humaines: gestion, valorisation et perspectives, edited by Y. Ardagna, B. Bizot, B. Boëtsch and X. Delestre, 75-77. Bulletin Archéologique de Provence Supplément 4. Aix-en-Provence: Association. Provence Archéologie.

Mattoso, J. 1996. O reino dos mortos na Idade Média peninsular. Lisboa: Edições João Sá da Costa.

Maudsley, G. and E. M. I. Williams. 1996. "'Inaccuracy' in Death Certification - Where Are We Now?" Journal of Public Health 18 (1): 59-66.

Mays, S. 2005. Guidance for Best Practice for Treatment of Human Remains Excavated from Christian Burial Grounds in England. Swindon: English Heritage and the Church of England.

McHanwell, S., E. Brenner, A. R. M. Chirculescu, J. Drukker, H. van Mameren, G. Mazzotti, D. Pais et al. 2008. "The Legal and Ethical Framework Governing Body Donation in Europe - A Review of Current Practice and Recommendations for Good Practice." European Journal of Anatomy 12 (1): 1-24.

Mennecier, P. 2006. "Les collections d'anthropologie du Musée de l'Homme (Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris)." In Les collections ostéologiques humaines: gestion, valorisation et perspectives, edited by Y. Ardagna, B. Bizot, B. Boëtsch and X. Delestre, 109-111. Bulletin Archéologique de Provence Supplément 4. Aix-en-Provence: Association Provence Archéologie.

Molleson, T., M. Cox, A. H. Waldron and D. K. Whittaker. 1993. The Spitalfield Project, Volume 2: The Anthropology - The Middling Sort. York: Council for British Archaeology.

Morton, S. G., J. Collins and T. S. Sinclair. 1839. Crania Americana, or, A comparative View of the Skulls of Various Aboriginal Nations of North and South America: To Which is Prefixed an Essay on the Varieties of the Human Species. Philadelphia: J. Dobson.

Mousourakis, G. 2015. Roman Law and the Origins of the Civil Law Tradition. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Muller, J. L., K. E. Pearlstein and C. de la Cova. 2017. "Dissection and Documented Skeletal Collections: Embodiments of Legalized Inequality." In The Bioarchaeology of Dissection and Autopsy in the United States, edited by K. C. Nystrom, 185-201. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Musgrave, E. 1997. "Memento Mori: The Function and Meaning of Breton Ossuaries 1450-1750." In The Changing Face of Death: Historical Accounts of Death and Disposal, edited by P. C. Jupp and G. Howarth, 62-75. Basingtoke, UK: Macmillan.

Mytum, H. 2003. "The Social History of the European Cemetery." In Handbook of Death and Dying, Volume 2: The Response to Death, edited by C. D. Bryant and D. L. Peck, 801-809. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

____. 2009. "Mortality Symbols in Action: Protestant and Catholic Memorials in Early-Eighteenth-Century West Ulster." Historical Archaeology 43: 160-182.

Nafte, M. 2015. "Institutional Bodies: Spatial Agency and the Dead." History and Anthropology 26 (2): 206-233.

Nicholas, G., J. R. Welch, A. Goodman and R. McGuire. 2010. "Beyond the Tangible: Repatriation of Cultural Heritage, Bioarchaeological Data, and Intellectual Property." Anthropology News 51 (3): 11-12.

Niinimäki, S. 2011. "What Do Muscle Marker Ruggedness Scores Actually Tell Us?" International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 21 (3): 292-299.

Nystrom, K. C. 2014. "The Bioarchaeology of Structural Violence and Dissection in the 19th-Century United States." American Anthropologist 116 (4): 765-779.

O'Bright, L., T. R. Peckmann and S. Meek. 2018. "Is 'Latin American' Population-Specific? Testing Sex Discriminant Functions from the Mexican Tibia on a Chilean Sample." Forensic Science International 287: 223.e1-223e7.

O'Neill, K. L. 2012. "There Is No More Room: Cemeteries, Personhood, and Bare Death." Ethnography 13 (4): 510-530.

Orban, R. and K. Vandoorne. 2006. "Les squelettes humaines de Koksijde (Coxyde) et Schoten: deux collections remarquables conservées à l'Institut royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique." In Les collections ostéologiques humaines: gestion, valorisation et perspectives, edited by Y. Ardagna, B. Bizot, B. Boëtsch and X. Delestre, 79-84. Bulletin Archéologique de Provence Supplément 4. Aix-en-Provence: Association Provence Archéologie.

O'Rourke, D. 2007. "Mourning Becomes Eclectic: Death of Communal Practice in a Greek Cemetery." American Ethnologist 34 (2): 387-402.

Overholtzer, L. and J. R. Argueta. 2018. "Letting Skeletons out of the Closet: The Ethics of Displaying Ancient Mexican Human Remains." International Journal of Heritage Studies 24 (5): 508-530.

Palmer, J. 2012. Busy Bones: Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Markers as Evidence of Physical Activity and Social Differentiation in Post-Medieval the Netherlands. Master's diss., Leiden University, Netherlands.

Pardo, I. 1989. "Life, Death and Ambiguity in the Social Dynamics of Inner Naples." Man (new series) 24 (1): 103-123.

Park, K. 1994. " The Criminal and the Saintly Body: Autopsy and Dissection in Renaissance Italy" Renaissance Quarterly 47 (1): 1-33.

____. 1995. "The Life of the Corpse: Division and Dissection in Late Medieval Europe." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 50 (1): 111-132.

____. 2006. Secrets of Women: Gender, Generation and the Origins of Human Dissection. New York: Zone Books.

Passalacqua, N. V., M. A. Pilloud and G. A. Gruters. 2014. "Letter to the Editor - Professionalism: Ethics and Scholariship in Forensic Science." Journal of Forensic Science 59 (2): 573-575.

Pastor, J. F., J. A. G. Verona, F. J. De Paz and M. Barbosa. 1995. "The Anatomical Museum of Valladolid." Yamaguchi Journal of Veterinary Medicine 22: 53-60.

Pezzini, F. 2010. "Disciplina della sepoltura nella napoli del Settecento. Note di ricerca." Studi Storici 55 (1): 155-208.

Picanço, N. P. and R. Essenfelder. 2015. "Alguém morre: relatos do maior cemitério da América Latina." Paper presented at Intercom - Sociedade Brasileira de Estudos Interdisciplinares da Comunicação XXII Prêmio Expocom, Exposiçãoda Pesquisa Experimental em Comunicação, 19-21 June. Online:

Pina-Cabral, J. de and R. G. Feijó. 1983. "Conflicting Attitudes to Death in Modern Portugal: The Question of Cemeteries." Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford 14 (1): 17-43. Online:

Queiroz, J. F. F. 2002. Os Cemitérios Do Porto e a arte funerária oitocentista em Portugal: consolidação da vivência românticana perpetuação da memória. PhD diss., Universidade do Porto, Portugal.

Quigley, C. 2001. Skulls and Skeletons: Human Bone Collections and Accumulations. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Raeburn, G. D. 2012. The Long Reformation of the Dead in Scotland. PhD diss., Durham University, UK.

Rankin-Hill, L. M. and M. L. Blakey. 1994. "W. Montague Cobb (1904-1990): Physical Anthropologist, Anatomist, and Activist." American Anthropologist 96 (1): 74-96.

Rebay-Salisbury, K. 2012. "Inhumation and Cremation: How Burial Practices Are Linked to Beliefs." In Embodied Knowledge: Historical Perspectives on Technology and Belief, edited by M. L. S. Sorensen and K. Rebay-Salisbury, 15-26. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Reedy, S. 2017. The Effects of Industrialization and Urbanization on Growth and Development: A Comparison of Boys and Girls from Three Industrial European Skeletal Collections. PhD diss., University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Renshaw, L. and N. Powers. 2016. "The Archaeology of Post-Medieval Death and Burial." Post-Medieval Archaeology 50 (1): 159-177.

Richardson, R. 1987. Death, Dissection and the Destitute: The Politics of the Corpse in Pre-Victorian Britain. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

____. 2006. "Human Dissection and Organ Donation: A Historical and Social Background." Mortality 11 (2): 151-165.

Rissech, C. and D. W. Steadman. 2011. "The Demographic, Socio-Economic and Temporal Contextualisation of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Collection of Identified Human Skeletons (UAB Collection)." International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 21 (3): 313-322.

Roberts, C. and S. Mays. 2011. "Study and Restudy of Curated Skeletal Collections in Bioarchaeology: A Perspective on the UK and the Implications for Future Curation of Human Remains." International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 21 (5): 626-630.

Roriz, M. and C. Padez. 2017. "A regulação ética da investigação e os desafios postos às práticas etnográficas." Etnografica 21 (1): 75-95.

Salceda, S. A., B. Desántolo, R. García Mancuso, M. Plischuk and A. M. Inda. 2012. "The 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' Collection: An Argentinian Sample of Modern Skeletons." HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology 63 (4): 275-281.

Samelo, N. T. C. R. 2016. Aspectos relativos à tutela post-mortem da personalidade humana no direito civil. Master's diss., Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal.

Sanabria-Medina, C., G. González-Colmenares, H. O. Restrepo and J. M. G. Rodríguez. 2016. "A Contemporary Colombian Skeletal Reference Collection: A Resource for the Development of Population Specific Standards." Forensic Science International 266: 577e1-577e4.

Sánchez-Mejorada, G., J. Gómez-Valdés, P. Herrera, P. Veleminsky and J. Bruzek. 2011. "Valoración del método de Diagnóstico Sexual Probabilístico (dsp) en una colección osteológica Mexicana." Estudios de Antropología Biológia 15 (1): 359-374.

Santos, A. L. 2018. "Skulls and Skeletons from Documented, Overseas and Archaeological Excavations: Portuguese Trajectories." In Archaeological Human Remains: Legacies of Imperialism, Communism and Colonialism, edited by B. O'Donnabhain and M. C. Lozada, 111-125. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

____. 2019. "A Particular Heritage: The Importance of Identified Osteological Collections." Mètode Science Studies Journal. 10: 91-97.

Saunders, S. R., D. A. Herring, L. A. Sawchuk and G. Boyce. 1995. "The Nineteenth Century Cemetery at St. Thomas' Anglican Church, Belleville: Skeletal Remains, Parish Records, and Censuses." In Grave Reflections: Portraying the Past Through Cemetery Studies, edited by S. R. Saunders and A. Herring, 93-117. Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press.

Sayer, D. 2011. "The Organization of Post-Medieval Churchyards, Cemeteries and Grave Plots: Variation and Religious Identity as Seen in Protestant Burial Provision." In The Archaeology of Post-Medieval Religion, edited by C. King and D. Sayer, 199-214. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press.

Scaramelli, F. and K. Scaramelli. 2014. "Archaeology, Bioethics, and Policies Regarding the Treatment of Ancient Human Remains in Venezuela." In Archaeological Human Remains: Global Perspectives, edited by B. O'Donnabhain and M. C. Lozada, 235-245. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Scarre, G. 2003. "Archaeology and Respect for the Dead." Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (3): 237-249.

____. 2006. "Can Archaeology Harm the Dead? In The Ethics of Archaeology: Philosophical Perspectives on Archaeological Practice, edited by C. Scarre and. G. Scarre, 181-198. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schermer, S. J., R. G. Franciscus and R. M. Lillie. 1999. "Development of a Useable Research Collection: The University of Iowa-Stanford Collection." Paper presented at Human Remains: Conservation, Retrieval and Analysis, 7-11 November, Williamsburg, VA.

Scheuer, J. L. and J. E. Bowman. 1995. "Correlation of Documentary and Skeletal Evidence in the St. Bride's Crypt Collection." In Grave Reflections: Portraying the Past Through Cemetery Studies, edited by S. R. Saunders and A. Herring, 49-70. Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press.

Scott, C. 1996. "Indigenous Self-Determination and Decolonization of the International Imagination: A Plea." Human Rights Quarterly 18 (4): 814-820.

Sharman, J. and J. Albanese. 2018. "Bioarchaeology and Identified Skeletal Collections: Problems and Potential Solutions." In Identified Skeletal Collections : The Testing Ground of Anthropology?, edited by C. Y. Henderson and F. Alves Cardoso, 83-114. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Shirley, N. R., R. J. Wilson and L. Meadows Jantz. 2011. "Cadaver Use at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility." Clinical Anatomy 24 (3): 372-380.

Sington, J. D. and B. J. Cottrell. 2002. "Analysis of the Sensitivity of Death Certificates in 440 Hospital Deaths: A Comparison with Necropsy Findings." Journal of Clinical Pathology 55 (7): 499-502.

Sjøvold, T. 1995. "Testing Assumptions for Skeletal Studies by Means of Identified Skulls from Hallstat, Austria." In Grave Reflections: Portraying the Past Through Cemetery Studies, edited by S. R. Saunders and A. Herring, 241-281. Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press.

Soficaru, A., M. Constantinescu, M. Culea and C. Ionică. 2014. "Evaluation of Discriminant Functions for Sexing Skulls from Visually Assessed Traits Applied in the Rainer Osteological Collection (Bucharest, Romania)." HOMO - Journal of Comparative Human Biology 65 (6): 464-475.

Solove, D. J. 2002. "Access and Aggregation: Public Records, Privacy and the Constitution." Minnesota Law Review 86 (6): 1138-1209.

Sousa, G. de V. 1994. "Ser e Estar perante a morte no Porto dos séculos XIX e XX: reflexos no património cemiterial." Lusitania Sacra 6: 309-325.

Strange, J.-M. 2003. "'Tho' Lost to Sight, to Memory Dear': Pragmatism, Sentimentality and Working-Class Attitudes towards the Grave, c.1875-1914." Mortality 8 (2): 144-159.

Techataweewan, N., P. Tuamsuk, Y. Toomsan, W. Woraputtaporn, P. Prachaney and N. Tayles. 2017. "A Large Modern Southeast Asian Human Skeletal Collection from Thailand." Forensic Science International 278: 406.e1-406.e6.

Tobias, P. V. 1991. "On the Scientific, Medical, Dental and Educational Value of Collections of Human Skeletons." International Journal of Anthropology 6: 277-280.

Trancho, G. J., B. Robledo, I. López-Bueis and J. A. Sánchez. 1997. "Sexual Determination of the Femur Using Discriminant Functions: Analysis of a Spanish Population of Known Sex and Age." Journal of Forensic Sciences 42 (2): 181-185.

Trigger, B. G. 2008. "'Alternative Archaeologies' in Historical Perspective." In Evaluating Multiple Narratives: Beyond Nationalist, Colonialist, Imperialist Archaeologies, edited by J. Habu, C. Fawcett and J. M. Matsunaga, 187-195. New York: Springer.

Turner, W. 1884. "Report on the Human Crania and Other Bones of the Skeletons Collected during the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger, in the Years 1873-1876." Zoology 10 (29): 1-130.

Tzortzopoulou-Gregory, L. 2010. "Remembering and Forgetting: The Relationship between Memory and the Abandonment of Graves in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Greek Cemeteries." International Journal of Historical Archaeology 14: 285-301.

Ubelaker, D. H. 2014. "Osteology Reference Collections." In Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, edited by C. Smith, 5632-5641. New York: Springer.

____. and L. G. Grant. 1989. "Human Skeletal Remains: Preservation or Reburial?" American Journal of Physical Anthropology 32 (S10): 249-287.

Usher, B. M. 2009. "Reference Samples: The First Step in Linking Biology and Age in the Human Skeleton." In Paleodemography: Age Distributions from Skeletal Samples, edited by R. D. Hoppa and J. W. Vaupel, 29-47. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Valenzuela Jiménez, G. 2007. "El Oficio de Machetero Visto Desde Los Huesos. Marcas de Actividad Ocupacional En El Esqueleto Número 2 Del Panteón San Nicolás Tolentino." Estudios de Antropología Biológia 13 (1): 163-185.

Vallois H. V. 1940. Le Laboratoire Broca. Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris 9 (1): 1-18.

Van Der Merwe, A. E, A. G. Morris, M. Steyn and G. J. R. Maat. 2013. "African Skeletal Remains Housed at the Anatomical Museum of the Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum." South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 11: 13-20.

Vanderbyl, G., J. Albanese, and H. F. V. Cardoso. 2020. "Structural Violence and the Nature of Cemetery-Based Skeletal Reference Collections: Exploring the Relationship between Social Inequalities and the Incorporation of Unclaimed Remains in a Portuguese Cemetery Collection." Human Remains and Violence 6 (2): 81-103.

Vassalo, A. R., A. P. Mamede, M. T. Ferreira, E. Cunha and D. Gonçalves. 2019. "The G-Force Awakens: The Influence of Gravity in Bone Heat-Induced Warping and Its Implications for the Estimation of the Pre-Burning Condition of Human Remains." Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences 51 (2): 201-208.

Vidor, G. M. 2012. Biografia Di un cimitero italiano. La Certosa di Bologna. Bologna: Società Editrice Il Mulino.

Walker, P. 2008. "Bioarchaeological Ethics: A Historical Perspective on the Value of Human Remains." In Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton (2nd edition), edited by M. A. Katzenberg and S. R. Saunders, 1-40. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Walsham, A. 2010. "Introduction: Relics and Remains." Past & Present 206 (Suppl. 5): 9-36.

Watkins, M. G. 2002. "The Cemetery and Cultural Memory: Montreal, 1860-1900." Urban History Review 31 (1): 52-62.

Watkins, R. and J. Muller. 2015. "Repositioning the Cobb Human Archive: The Merger of a Skeletal Collection and Its Texts." American Journal of Human Biology 27 (1): 41-50.

Weiss, E. 2015. "Can We Create Ethnically Diverse Skeletal Collection from Donated Bodies?" Anthropologischer Anzeiger 72 (1): 43-53.

Wortley, J. 2006. "The Origins of Christian Veneration of Body-Parts." Revue de l'histoire des religions 2006 (1): 5-28.

Xisto, B. O. de O. 2012. "Assunto encerrado"? Atitudes contemporâneas perante a morte e a cremaçāo em Lisboa. Master's diss., Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.

Ziesemer, K. 2013. Body Mass in the 19th Century Skeletal Population of Middenbeemster. Master's diss., Leiden University, The Netherlands.

Zucchi, A. 2006. "Churches as Catholic Burial Places: Excavations at the San Francisco Church, Venezuela." Historical Archaeology 40: 57-68.

Zuckerman, M. K., K. R. Kamnikar and S. A. Mathena. 2014. "Recovering the 'Body Politic': A Relational Ethics of Meaning for Bioarchaeology." Cambridge Archaeological Journal 24 (3): 513-522.