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Book: The Qur'an

Chapter: 9. Repentance

DOI: 10.1558/equinox.43741


This sūra deals with various matters connected with fighting for the cause of God. It opens with a renunciation of all treaty obligations with the ‘idolaters’ (Q9.1–28). This is followed by a short exhortation to fight against the ‘People of the Book’ (Q9.29–35). Then comes a sustained diatribe against the ‘hypocrites’ and others for their refusal to fight alongside the Prophet (Q9.38–106). It concludes by emphasizing again the duty to fight for the cause (Q9.119–129). Q9 is the only sūra in the Cairo edition that is not introduced by the basmala (though the codex of Ibn Mas‘ūd is said to have included it). The title comes from the reference to ‘repentance’ at Q9.104, but it is also known as ‘The Renunciation’ (al-Barā’a) from its first word.

Chapter Contributors

  • A.J. Droge ( - adroge)